<<PR/PE Index 

Application for State Approval of

Teacher Preparation Specialty Programs


Michigan Department of Education, Office of Professional Preparation Services

P.O. Box 30008, Lansing, Michigan 48909

Phone:  (517) 335-4610 *** Fax:  (517) 373-0542



  • For each new, amended, or experimental program, a separate application is required. 
  • Application and all documentation are to be submitted electronically. 
  • Fax or mail only the cover page that is signed by the unit head. 
  • All correspondence regarding this application should be addressed to the consultant/coordinator identified on Application Attachment 1. 


I.  Application Information


Lake Superior State University

MDE Endorsement Area and Code (from Application Attachment 2)


English (BA)

Date of this Application

February 4, 2005

Name and Title of Unit Head

Dr. David Myton, Chair, School of Education

Signature of Unit Head




II.  Contact Information for Questions Related to This Application

Contact Person’s Name and Title

Dr. Eric Gadzinski, Assoc. Prof. of English

Contact Person’s Phone Number

(906) 635-2115

Contact Person’s Fax Number

(906) 635-6678

Contact Person’s E-Mail Address



III.  Type of Request for Approval                                                                  (Indicate One)

New program for institution


U.S. Department of Education Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Code, if vocational occupational area


Compliance with State Board of Education new or modified program criteria


Experimental program


Program amendment (See Section IX for guidelines)



IV.  Institutional Representatives                                                                 

Name/Title Specialty Mailing Address E-mail Address Phone Fax

Dr. Eric Gadzinski

English Lake Superior State University  650 W. Easterday Avenue, Sault Saint Marie, MI  49783 egadzinski@lssu.edu (906) 635-2115 (906) 635-6678


<<PR/PE Index 

Quick Link Index:

Section 1. Summary of Course Requirements

Section 2. Program Summary

Section 3. Instructional faculty

Section 4. Candidate Preparation

Section 5. Collaborative Partnerships

Section 6. Professional Development and Support

Section 7. Standards Matrix

Section 8. Special Recognition

Section 9. Instructional Methods

Section 10. Course Descriptions

Section 11.  Course Syllabi


            English (BA) Specialty Program

            Lake Superior State University

            February 4, 2005






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Section 2. Program Summary

(Narrative below)




a. Describe the philosophy, rationale, and objectives of the specialty program and explain how the program is consistent with the philosophy, rationale, and conceptual framework of the unit.


The elementary and secondary teaching certification programs within the discipline of English are designed to provide students with a strong grounding in literature, language, and composition studies combined with pedagogical theory and practice.  This combination, which results from parallel and interrelated coursework in both English and Teacher Education, enables students to proceed as teachers who can deliver and apply content area knowledge through the best practices and methods appropriate to the elementary and secondary learning environment.


As mentioned above, the English program consists of three areas of emphasis:


  • Literary studies.  Coursework in this area provides a broad and deep knowledge of English and American literary history involving extensive practice of critical analysis and research as well as knowledge of the development and variety of critical theories.  Additionally, the English programs for elementary and secondary teaching certification include coursework in the history and critical analysis of children’s and adolescent literature and the application of this literature to the K-12 classroom environment.


  • Language studies.  Coursework in this area provides a solid grounding in the history and structure of the English language including knowledge of linguistic theory in language development and variety and study of modern English grammar. In addition, all English majors in both teaching and non-teaching programs are required to complete two years of coursework in a language other than English to further both their general literacy and provide additional perspective on language structure.  This two year requirement represents an additional year beyond the single year of foreign language required by the University for B.A. degrees.



  •  Composition studies.   All students in the University are required to complete two courses in written composition designed to develop writing fluency and critical awareness of writing purpose and audience, and one course that provides practice in oral communication as well as knowledge of a range of theories and practices in verbal and nonverbal communication settings and contexts.  Courses within the English program concentrate on advanced composition theory and practice, critical responses to student and peer texts and electives in creative, technical, and journalistic writing.


The combination of these three emphases is intended to produce graduates who are culturally literate in the content area, critically aware, and fluently articulate.  The pedagogical theory, method, and practice courses provided by Teacher Education and that accompany content area courses enable graduates to translate and apply their content knowledge and ability to effective teaching.


The English-teaching programs are consistent with the aims and approaches of the Teacher Education unit in modeling and fostering the structural elements of research, reflection, response, content, pedagogy, professional disposition, and engagement in and management of diverse and participatory learning communities that constitute the framework for the practice of professional education.


The School of Education Vision Statement states that we are a community of learners bound by the shared values that exemplify excellence in the professional education of teachers.  The School of Education Mission Statement affirms that we are committed to provide opportunities for research, reflection and response in the education of teachers.  We achieve these opportunities through situated and contextual learning experiences, and in the foundations for the development of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and professional dispositions.  We value a commitment to learning communities, and are dedicated to meeting the diverse needs of learners. 


In keeping with the logo of Lake Superior State University, the School of Education summarizes its mission in the motto: EDUCATING TEACHERS FOR TOMORROW’S SCHOOLS

With respect and understanding for individual differences and shared heritages

For whom learning is an ongoing lifelong process, and

With high academic and professional standards


We believe that the act of teaching and learning involves a framework of research, reflection, and response.  We see these elements as an evolving cyclical process, a pathway that learners and leaders of learning must employ to create powerful knowledge bases, develop as participatory members of a democratic society, and establish and maintain environments conducive to learning. The process of research, reflection, and response is focused upon four areas that we believe are the essential elements of expert teaching.  These areas include: content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, professional dispositions, and learning communities.  At the center of the process of acquiring and applying the skills and knowledge of professional practice we place the learner. 

We see the learner as inclusive of all stakeholders in schooling and education. 


What is

Research:  Expert teachers understand the need to maintain a current perspective on the numerous facets of education.  A professional educator strives to engage in the study of pedagogy, examination of the literature related to teaching and explore avenues for the transformation of theory to practice. The act of research is often precipitated by observed events in the classroom and school.  When dilemmas arise, expert teachers ask questions and then seek answers through research.


Reflection:  John Dewey stated “The active, persistent, careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in light of the grounds that support it is reflective thought” (1933, p.9).  Expert teacher are continuously reflecting upon their practice.  Engaging in critique, they look at the elements of teaching as well as their whole practice within the contexts in which pedagogy is engaged.  The act of reflection requires the teacher to question their behavior, their beliefs as determinants of practice, and carefully consider the responsibility of being a leader of learning.


Response: The act of engaging in pedagogy should be responsive.  To implement change or modifications in one’s practice to better facilitate learning is a key element in the repertoire of an expert teacher.  Response however is not change for the sake of change.  Response is the act of planned change given careful research and reflection.  The professional educator employs change in relationship to perceived need, then after review of literature and active research within the classroom, supported by careful reflection, the teacher implements the change.  The expert teacher then monitors the response, actively engaging in continued research and reflection to better their pedagogical practice.


Content Knowledge: Teachers need to be broadly educated in the liberal arts and sciences, and be able to knowledgeable of the interdependence of the disciplines. They must be able to analyze and synthesize ideas, information, and data and make applications of knowledge in inquiry, problem-solving, and critical thinking. The professional educator must be an effective communicator, possessing the skills and abilities of listening, speaking, writing, and reading.


Pedagogical Knowledge: Professional educators must have the knowledge to effectively engage individuals in the learning process.  In order to engage in teaching excellence they must posses a strong understanding of cognition, the multidimensional dimensions of learners and learning, and demonstrate the skills of research, reflection, and responsive pedagogy.   Via an understanding of human growth and development, a variety of instructional techniques, assessments, materials and technologies, and an abundance of practical experience in classrooms, teacher candidates should be able to mature as exemplar professional educators.


Professional Dispositions: Teachers are stewards of society.  They are the models and guides of future generations. In light of their influence in classrooms and schools, all teachers and teacher candidates must model the ethics, values and dispositions of professional educators. They should be able to engage in active reflection, self-critique and accept constructive criticism from others.  The developing professional educator should invite and respect others' points of view and incorporate reasonable suggestions from peers and experts.  Teachers and teacher candidates should be committed to life-long learning and the belief that all candidates can learn.  


Learning Communities: Schools and classrooms are microcosms of society, and as such are the venues for candidates to learn and grow as participatory members of the community.  The themes of caring, responsibil°ity, democracy, and stewardship are woven into the fabric of curriculum as teachers and teacher candidates take on the role of facilitators of environments conducive to learning while modeling tolerance, dignity, participation and shared decision making.


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b. Describe the sequence of courses and/or experiences to develop an understanding of the structures, skills, core concepts, ideas, values, facts, methods of inquiry, and uses of technology.


The core sequence of the literary component of the English curriculum begins with an Introduction to Literary Studies and proceeds through respective two-semester historical surveys of English and American literature to intensive study of literary periods ranging from Medieval to Modern and culminating in a course in critical theory and a senior thesis.  This core is complemented by courses in genre and diversity studies and courses that explore specific themes or topics as well as allow directed independent research.  For English-teaching students, the literary core includes upper-level courses in The Children’s Literary Tradition and Children’s Literature in the Classroom.  Teacher Education courses in Emergent Literacy and English/Language Arts methods instruct students on cognitive development and pedagogical practice.


All courses in the English curriculum are writing-intensive and require a variety of written assignments where students continue to develop writing competence in addition to content knowledge and critical ability.  The specific composition component of the curriculum consists of courses in Advanced Writing and Responding to Writing, which are complemented by additional opportunities for courses in creative, technical and journalistic writing as well as courses provided by the Communication faculty in Argumentation and Advocacy and Classical and Contemporary Rhetoric.


The language component of the curriculum consists of a course in grammar, which is a prerequisite for the 400-level History of the English Language course that focuses on language structure, development and variation.  As mentioned above, this component is complemented by two years of foreign language study.  Foreign language is broadly interpreted to include ancient languages such as Old English and Attic Greek and Latin as well as modern languages other than English.


In addition to studies within and related to the English and Education curriculum, students are given a broad foundation in liberal arts and sciences through the University’s General Education curriculum.


Formal admission to the School of Education teacher certification program also requires (in addition to university general education requirements of one year English, one semester of speech, one year of social sciences, on year of humanities and a course in student diversity), the following items:

CS101 Introduction to Computer Science – addressing basic competencies in technology

MA207 Statistics

Michigan Test for Teacher Certification Basic Skills Test

Formal Interview

Impromptu timed essay – assessing written communication skills

2.70 minimum overall GPA with no grade below C in major/minor, and

B- minimum grade in professional education sequence courses.


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c.  Describe how candidates are prepared to utilize a variety of instructional approaches to address the various learning styles of candidates.


Student learning styles are a significant topic addressed in the professional education core sequence, especially in TE250 Student Diversity and Schools and TE301 Learning Theory and Teaching Practice.  In TE301 candidates analyze various approaches to teaching and learning and the decisions which teachers make in applying theory to diverse classroom situations.  TE411 Elementary Language Arts and Methods Across the Curriculum, and TE 441 Language Arts Methods for Secondary Teachers extends these topics to the classroom and provide a discipline specific context for continuing these discussions while candidate’s field placements are focused on instructional practice in their specialty.


Student learning styles are a significant topic addressed in the professional education core sequence, especially in TE250 Student Diversity and Schools and TE301 Learning Theory and Teaching Practice.  In TE301 candidates analyze various approaches to teaching and learning and the decisions which teachers make in applying theory to diverse classroom situations.  TE443 Secondary Science Methods extends these topics to the science classroom and provide a discipline specific context for continuing these discussions while candidate’s field placements are focused on instructional practice in their science specialty.


d.  Describe any differences that may exist between elementary or secondary preparation to teach in each major or minor area (e.g., instructional resources, field placements, instructional techniques), if applicable.


There is no appreciable difference in the respective curricula for elementary and secondary majors and minors, as there is none between these and non-teaching majors and minors.  What difference is discernable is a further level of literary, language and composition study in the secondary versus elementary curriculum as appropriate for the advanced content and skills requirements for secondary education..


e.  Describe how the program incorporates gender equity, multi-cultural, and global perspectives into the teaching of the subject area.


Gender, cultural ,ethnic and racial diversity among students and faculty and the critical sensitivities applied to studies in the subject area both model and foster appreciation of diversity issues and perspectives.  In addition, courses within the English curricula (e.g., Literature and Culture) and Education curricula (e.g., Student Diversity and Schools) specifically address these matters.


f.  Describes how the program prepares candidates to use multiple methods of assessment appropriate to this specialty area.


Courses in the specialty area employ a variety of assessment approaches and instruments, ranging from conventional assessment by quiz or exam, to course projects and presentations, to journals and portfolios, reflective, self-assessing essays and student course evaluations.  Education courses, including courses related to the specialty area, not only model assessment practices but specifically address assessment strategies and practices.  Field experience further exposes candidates to assessment methods.



Section 3 Faculty

Instructional Faculty [TABLE]




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Section 4 Candidate Preparation

Submit available data specific to the program area being reviewed





Data regarding scores on teacher certification tests in the subject area for both elementary and secondary candidates indicate pass rates consistent with state averages.  MTTC pass rates for the past five years indicates a high pass rate for our English candidates.  We do not have an approved program in Language Arts, the scores are provided for informational value only.


Subject Test Code Test Date #  Examinees Scaled Mean Score # Pass % Pass # Not Pass % Not Pass Sub area pass %
Lang Arts 1 10/7/2000 1 216 0 0 1 100 100 100 0 100
Lang Arts 1 7/14/2001 1 243 1 100 0 0 100 100 0 100
Statewide Lang Arts 1     247.1   91   9 82 93 71 91
English 2 7/15/2000 6 261 6 100 0 0 100 100 100 100
English 2 1/13/2001 3 250.3 3 100 0 0 100 100 100 100
English 2 4/21/2001 3 262.3 3 100 0 0 100 100 100 100
English 2 7/14/2001 5 252.8 4 80 1 20 100 100 80 80
English 2 10/6/2001 3 274 3 100 0 0 100 100 100 100
English 2 1/12/2002 4 253.3 4 100 0 0 100 75 100 100
English 2 7/13/2002 1 260 1 100 0 0 100 0 100 100
English 2 1/11/2003 4 261.3 4 100 0 0 100 75 100 100
English 2 4/12/2003 2 248 1 100 0 0 100 100 100 100
English 2 7/12/2003 1 215 0 0 1 100 100 0 0 0
English 2 10/18/2003 4 248.5 4 100 0 0 100 100 75 100
English 2 1/10/2004 5 231.6 4 80 1 20 100 60 80 80
English 2 4/3/2004 9 230.8 5 56 4 44 89 22 67 89
English 2 7/10/2004 4 236.3 3 75 1 25 100 25 75 75
English 2 10/16/2004 8 232.9 7 88 1 13 88 38 88 88
Statewide English  2     245.6   87   13 79 62 91 94



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Section 5 Collaborative Partnership

  • Describe how candidates for majors and minors in specific specialty programs participate in early field experiences in K-12 schools. 
  • Describe aspects of the student teaching experience for certification candidates that enhance the applicants’ abilities to teach in this specific specialty area.  Are candidates in your institution assigned to K-12 classrooms as student teachers in both their major and minor (if applicable)? 








Field placements are integrated throughout the professional education sequence beginning with TE250 Student Diversity and Schools where the focus is on tutoring experiences.  In subsequent courses, after admission to the School of Education, candidates have diverse and varied experiences of increasing responsibility and duration.  These early field experiences require a minimum of 15 hours per semester per course in focused experiences coupled with reflective journaling and fulfillment of additional course outcomes focused on the experiences.  Field experiences are required in each of the professional education core courses (TE250, TE301, TE430, TE431, TE440 and TE443) prior to entering the student teaching internship.  During the internship candidates work for approximately 22 weeks under the direct supervision of a classroom teacher and the periodic oversight of a university supervisor.  Candidates meet regularly with a university instructor for a seminar course, and are also concurrently enrolled in a graduate course each of the two semesters of the internship.  During the fall semester, candidates complete TE602 Reflection and Inquiry in Teaching Practice I examining qualitative and quantitative research methods and developing their own research based question addressing student learning.  During the spring semester students complete a second graduate level course on curriculum planning and implementation, TE605.


Student teaching internship placements extend across two university semesters, beginning generally with the start of the academic year in August/September and continuing through mid-April.  Candidates are strongly advised to use the transition at mid-year to change their placement venue to gain experience at a second level or subject area in the spring.  Such changes in placement do require the consent and concurrence of the building principals and teachers, and in some cases teachers wish to continue with a single student the entire time.  Wherever possible candidates are placed in situations where they can teach in both their major and minor fields, either through split morning/afternoon assignments with different teachers, or placements in different schools for each semester.


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Section 6 Professional Development and Support

Postponed until 2005-20012



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Section 8 Special Recognition





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Section 9 Instructional Methods

Describe how candidates are prepared to teach in this specific specialty area. 

Describe how this program will utilize technological resources.







Lake Superior State University teacher candidates are prepared in instructional methods through both the professional education sequence (TE150-TE443) and through courses in their English curriculum.  In the professional education sequence, the secondary candidate completes TE430 General Methods for Secondary Teachers (a study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate learning...), TE440 Reading in the Content Area (a study of reading methods...) and TE411 Elementary Language Arts and Methods Across the Curriculum or TE441 Language Arts Methods for Secondary Teachers (curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization methods and assessment).  Each of these courses has a required fieldwork component where the candidate applies the concepts and theories through modeling and practice lessons in  classrooms as appropriate to their certification. 


A variety of instructional techniques are used within the English curriculum which serve to further model modes of delivery, ranging from traditional lecture, to collaborative group work, to directed independent research.


Technology is integrated throughout the professional education sequence, in fulfillment of the 7th standard of the Entry Level Standards for Michigan Teachers (ELSMT).  The School of Education uses extensive resources available for Michigan teachers to enhance their preparedness for the effective use of technology, including, for example, the Preparing Teachers for Tomorrow project through Merit (http://ptft.merit.edu) and Intel's Teach to the Future project into our professional education sequence.  This integration is reflected in many of our internal documents which are archived on the School of Education website, including the PTFT alignment matrix and the PTFT assessments per module summary.


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Section 10 Course Descriptions

Provide descriptions of all courses contained on Application Attachment 3.  Descriptions must provide enough information to show that standards could logically be met in these courses. 





English Course descriptions for each course are published in the university calendar (catalog), and reproduced here for reference.  Catalog course descriptions broadly describe course objectives, credit earned and prerequisites.  The course syllabi, provided in Section 11, are the more complete record of course content, objectives, assessment, and alignment to the content standards.


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Section 11 Syllabi


Provide a representative syllabus for each required course (those listed on Application Attachment 3 and referenced in the standards matrix).





Some course syllabi are provided in a compilation file (html format)

  • EN180 Intro to Literary Studies
  • EN221 Creative Writing
  • EN222 English Grammar (scanned)
  • EN231 American Literature I
  • EN232 American Literature II
  • EN233 English Literature I
  • EN234 English Literature II
  • EN235 Survey of Native Lit of N.A.
  • EN236 Literature and Culture
  • EN306 Technical Writing
  • EN310 Advanced Writing
  • EN320 Responding  to Writing (scanned)
  • EN335 Children’s Lit. in  Classroom
  • EN340 Genre Studies
  • EN401 Medieval Literature (scanned)
  • EN402 Renaissance Literature
  • EN403 Restoration Literature
  • EN405 Romantic Literature
  • EN406 19th C. Literature (scanned)
  • EN407 20th C. Literature
  • EN410Children’s Lit. Tradition
  • EN420 History of English Lang.
  • EN421 History of Lit. Criticism (scanned)
  • EN490 Senior Thesis
  • TE 411 Elementary Language Arts and Methods across the Curriculum
  • TE 441 Language Arts Methods for Secondary Teachers



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