<<PR/PE Index 

Application for State Approval of

Teacher Preparation Specialty Programs

 

Michigan Department of Education, Office of Professional Preparation Services

P.O. Box 30008, Lansing, Michigan 48909

Phone:  (517) 335-4610 *** Fax:  (517) 373-0542

 

Directions:

  • For each new, amended, or experimental program, a separate application is required. 
  • Application and all documentation are to be submitted electronically. 
  • Fax or mail only the cover page that is signed by the unit head. 
  • All correspondence regarding this application should be addressed to the consultant/coordinator identified on Application Attachment 1. 

 

I.  Application Information

Institution


Lake Superior State University

MDE Endorsement Area and Code (from Application Attachment 2)

 

History (CC)

Date of this Application

February 4, 2005

Name and Title of Unit Head

Dr. David Myton, Chair, School of Education

Signature of Unit Head

 

 

 

II.  Contact Information for Questions Related to This Application

Contact Person’s Name and Title

Dr. Daniel Dorrity, Professor of History

Contact Person’s Phone Number

(906) 635-2117

Contact Person’s Fax Number

(906) 635-6678

Contact Person’s E-Mail Address

ddorrity@lssu.edu

 

III.  Type of Request for Approval                                                                  (Indicate One)

New program for institution

 

U.S. Department of Education Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) Code, if vocational occupational area

 

Compliance with State Board of Education new or modified program criteria

X

Experimental program

 

Program amendment (See Section IX for guidelines)

 

 

IV.  Institutional Representatives                                                                 

Name/Title Specialty Mailing Address E-mail Address Phone Fax

Dr. Daniel T. Dorrity, Prof of History

History Lake Superior State University  650 W. Easterday Avenue, Sault Saint Marie, MI  49783 ddorrity@lssu.edu (906) 635-2117 (906) 635-6678
James Moody, Prof. of History History Lake Superior State University  650 W. Easterday Avenue, Sault Saint Marie, MI  49783 jmoody@lssu.edu 906) 635-2021 (906) 635-6678

 


<<PR/PE Index 

Quick Link Index:

Section 1. Summary of Course Requirements

Section 2. Program Summary

Section 3. Instructional faculty

Section 4. Candidate Preparation

Section 5. Collaborative Partnerships

Section 6. Professional Development and Support

Section 7. Standards Matrix

Section 8. Special Recognition

Section 9. Instructional Methods

Section 10. Course Descriptions

Section 11.  Course Syllabi


 


            History (CC) Specialty Program

            Lake Superior State University

            February 4, 2005

 

 

 

 

 

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Section 2. Program Summary

(Narrative below)

 

 

 

a. Describe the philosophy, rationale, and objectives of the specialty program and explain how the program is consistent with the philosophy, rationale, and conceptual framework of the unit.

 

Lake Superior State University academic programs are contained in either of two units, the College of Professional Studies (containing the School of Education) or the College of Arts and Letters (containing the School of  History, Humanities, and the Arts).  One faculty member holds a dual appointment with the two Schools, Dr. Schacher (history and education).  The School of History, Humanities, and the Arts is comprised of History, Humanities, Geography, Foreign Languages, Native Studies, Philosophy, Social Science, Social Studies, and the Arts.  The mission of the School is to facilitate student development by helping them identify and achieve their academic, personal, and professional objectives.  We focus on active student involvement in order to create an effective learning environment. Candidates are engaged in the study of the arts, humanities, and social sciences through undergraduate research, inquiry-based learning, critical thinking, and progressive integration into its community of scholars.

 

The mission of the School of History, Humanities, and the Arts is to deliver a rigorous and relevant curriculum that contributes to the intellectual and personal growth of its candidates. We offer baccalaureate degrees in Fine Arts, French, History, Social Science, Social Studies, and Spanish in a mutually supportive environment of teaching, learning, and student-centered research. The primary goal of the School of History, Humanities, and the Arts is to prepare a diverse group of candidates for careers in teaching, industry, government, or for entry into graduate and professional schools. The preparation of our candidates includes developing their critical thinking and communication skills, their knowledge of modern relative technology, their ability to adapt to changing work conditions, their ability to work productively and cooperatively with other people, and their inclination for lifelong learning.

 

The School of Education Vision Statement states that we are a community of learners bound by the shared values that exemplify excellence in the professional education of teachers.  The School of Education Mission Statement affirms that we are committed to provide opportunities for research, reflection and response in the education of teachers.  We achieve these opportunities through situated and contextual learning experiences, and in the foundations for the development of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and professional dispositions.  We value a commitment to learning communities, and are dedicated to meeting the diverse needs of learners. 

 

In keeping with the logo of Lake Superior State University, the School of Education summarizes its mission in the motto: EDUCATING TEACHERS FOR TOMORROW’S SCHOOLS
PERSONAL

With respect and understanding for individual differences and shared heritages
NATURAL

For whom learning is an ongoing lifelong process, and
SUPERIOR

With high academic and professional standards

 

We believe that the act of teaching and learning involves a framework of research, reflection, and response.  We see these elements as an evolving cyclical process, a pathway that learners and leaders of learning must employ to create powerful knowledge bases, develop as participatory members of a democratic society, and establish and maintain environments conducive to learning. The process of research, reflection, and response is focused upon four areas that we believe are the essential elements of expert teaching.  These areas include: content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, professional dispositions, and learning communities.  At the center of the process of acquiring and applying the skills and knowledge of professional practice we place the learner. 

We see the learner as inclusive of all stakeholders in schooling and education. 

 

What is

Research:  Expert teachers understand the need to maintain a current perspective on the numerous facets of education.  A professional educator strives to engage in the study of pedagogy, examination of the literature related to teaching and explore avenues for the transformation of theory to practice. The act of research is often precipitated by observed events in the classroom and school.  When dilemmas arise, expert teachers ask questions and then seek answers through research.

 

Reflection:  John Dewey stated “The active, persistent, careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in light of the grounds that support it is reflective thought” (1933, p.9).  Expert teacher are continuously reflecting upon their practice.  Engaging in critique, they look at the elements of teaching as well as their whole practice within the contexts in which pedagogy is engaged.  The act of reflection requires the teacher to question their behavior, their beliefs as determinants of practice, and carefully consider the responsibility of being a leader of learning.

 

Response: The act of engaging in pedagogy should be responsive.  To implement change or modifications in one’s practice to better facilitate learning is a key element in the repertoire of an expert teacher.  Response however is not change for the sake of change.  Response is the act of planned change given careful research and reflection.  The professional educator employs change in relationship to perceived need, then after review of literature and active research within the classroom, supported by careful reflection, the teacher implements the change.  The expert teacher then monitors the response, actively engaging in continued research and reflection to better their pedagogical practice.

 

Content Knowledge: Teachers need to be broadly educated in the liberal arts and sciences, and be able to knowledgeable of the interdependence of the disciplines. They must be able to analyze and synthesize ideas, information, and data and make applications of knowledge in inquiry, problem-solving, and critical thinking. The professional educator must be an effective communicator, possessing the skills and abilities of listening, speaking, writing, and reading.

 

Pedagogical Knowledge: Professional educators must have the knowledge to effectively engage individuals in the learning process.  In order to engage in teaching excellence they must posses a strong understanding of cognition, the multidimensional dimensions of learners and learning, and demonstrate the skills of research, reflection, and responsive pedagogy.   Via an understanding of human growth and development, a variety of instructional techniques, assessments, materials and technologies, and an abundance of practical experience in classrooms, teacher candidates should be able to mature as exemplar professional educators.

 

Professional Dispositions: Teachers are stewards of society.  They are the models and guides of future generations. In light of their influence in classrooms and schools, all teachers and teacher candidates must model the ethics, values and dispositions of professional educators. They should be able to engage in active reflection, self-critique and accept constructive criticism from others.  The developing professional educator should invite and respect others' points of view and incorporate reasonable suggestions from peers and experts.  Teachers and teacher candidates should be committed to life-long learning and the belief that all candidates can learn.  

 

Learning Communities: Schools and classrooms are microcosms of society, and as such are the venues for candidates to learn and grow as participatory members of the community.  The themes of caring, responsibil°ity, democracy, and stewardship are woven into the fabric of curriculum as teachers and teacher candidates take on the role of facilitators of environments conducive to learning while modeling tolerance, dignity, participation and shared decision making.

 

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b. Describe the sequence of courses and/or experiences to develop an understanding of the structures, skills, core concepts, ideas, values, facts, methods of inquiry, and uses of technology.

 

Lake Superior State University teacher candidates seeking a history endorsement complete either a 44-semester hour major or 36 or 37semester hour minor, as listed on Form XX.

 

The major is comprised of

Major 46-47 credits

 

HS101 History of World Civilization I                

HS102 History of World Civilization II    

HS131 United States History I                    

HS132 United States History II 

HS496 Research Methods in History

HS497 Senior Seminar

GG201 World Regional Geography

GG302 Economic Geography

PS110 Introduction to American Government

TE422 Elementary Social Studies Methods or TE444 Secondary Methods for Social Studies

 

ELECTIVE COURSES 

The following courses are elective. Students majoring in History must select any three courses from the following list. These elective courses are all 4 credits.

 

HS440 The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution

HS441 Diplomatic History of the United States I

HS442 Diplomatic History of the United States II

HS302 England in the Modern World

HS310 Russia From Underdeveloped World to Superpower

HS315 Europe from Napoleon to World War I

HS316 Europe in the 20th Century

HS361 Latin America

HS371 Far Eastern Civilization, 1850 to the Present 

 

Minor 36-37 credits

 

HS101 History of World Civilization I                

HS102 History of World Civilization II    

HS131 United States History I                    

HS132 United States History II 

HS496 Research Methods in History

GG201 World Regional Geography

GG302 Economic Geography

PS110 Introduction to American Government

TE422 Elementary Social Studies Methods or TE444 Secondary Methods for Social Studies

 

ELECTIVES 

Students Minoring in History must select one course from the above list of Electives

 

Note that the History major and Minor will also complete two courses in Geography and one course in Political Science. 

 

All candidates majoring in the department must complete a senior thesis project including a formal research paper.  These research projects serve as a landmark transition whereby the candidate moves from recipient of knowledge prepared by others (a student) to become the expert in a field, to uncover and develop new knowledge and to participate in the dissemination of this knowledge to others (a researcher/teacher).  Candidates use appropriate technologies in the conducting of this research (library research, quantitative and statistical analysis, etc) and in the presentation (computer software suites, presentation software, audio/visual presentation equipment, posters, etc).

 

 Formal admission to the School of Education teacher certification program also requires (in addition to university general education requirements of one year English, one semester of speech, one year of social sciences, on year of humanities and a course in student diversity), the following items:

CS101 Introduction to Computer Science – addressing basic competencies in technology

MA207 Statistics

Michigan Test for Teacher Certification Basic Skills Test

Formal Interview

Impromptu timed essay – assessing written communication skills

2.70 minimum overall GPA with no grade below C in major/minor, and

B- minimum grade in professional education sequence courses.

 

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c.  Describe how candidates are prepared to utilize a variety of instructional approaches to address the various learning styles of candidates.

 

Student learning styles are a significant topic addressed in the professional education core sequence, especially in TE250 Student diversity and Schools and TE301 Learning Theory and Teaching Practice.  In TE301 candidates analyze various approaches to teaching and learning and the decisions that teachers make in applying theory to diverse classroom situations.  Students study social cognitive and constructivist views of learning, as well as learning the approaches for the creation of a positive learning environment.  TE422 Elementary Social Studies Methods and TE444 Secondary Social Studies Methods extend these topics to the social studies classroom and provide a discipline specific context for continuing these discussions.  For example, methods are provided for integrating the curriculum to incorporate language arts, performing arts and visual arts, as well as incorporating technology.  Cooperative learning is taught to offer opportunities to have learners enhance their skills and knowledge through group activities.  Inquiry and critical thinking are integral aspects of the coursework, as well. Candidates’ field placements are focused on the instructional practice in their specialty areas.

 

d.  Describe any differences that may exist between elementary or secondary preparation to teach in each major or minor area (e.g., instructional resources, field placements, instructional techniques), if applicable.

 

 There are more similarities than differences between elementary and secondary preparation to teach in each major or minor area.  These include a core curriculum offered in a sequence of classes through the 300 level.  Field observation time, field placement experiences and opportunities to tutor are equivalent.  At the 400 level, secondary and elementary student teachers diverge and take a series of methods courses tailored to their choice of level of instruction.  However, the time allotted for the field experience is the same.  Elementary teacher education students are exposed to a diverse array of subjects, whereas the secondary students tend to focus on their major and minor topics.

 

            

 

e.  Describe how the program incorporates gender equity, multi-cultural, and global perspectives into the teaching of the subject area.

 

The professional education core sequence contains a course devoted to these issues:  TE250 Student Diversity and Schools.  TE250 is required for all teacher candidates prepared by Lake Superior State University.  In additions, all graduates of Lake Superior State University are required to complete a course in diversity as a part of their general education program, such as SO103 Cultural Diversity, where students are introduced to concepts about racial, ethnic, gender and social class variation.  TE301, Learning Theory and teaching practice devotes a portion of the course to addressing issues of learner differences, multicultural classrooms, social class differences, gender role issues and bias, language differences, and methods for creating a culturally and socially compatible classroom. Student diversity, and developing an appreciation of diversity issues, is addressed in TE422 Studies Methods for Elementary Teachers and TE444 Social Studies Methods for Secondary Teachers; required courses for major/minors.  Techniques for transforming the curriculum to infuse multicultural perspectives are provided

 

f.  Describes how the program prepares candidates to use multiple methods of assessment appropriate to this specialty area.

 

Multiple methods of assessment are addressed directly in TE301, Learning Theory and Teaching Practice.  A variety of techniques are explored including formative and summative assessment strategies, as well as the creation of authentic classroom tests.  In addition, the concept of going beyond grading to communication and create family and community partnerships is introduced. Assessment, in addition to experiences gained through the content courses in history and required cognates, is addressed in TE422 Social Studies Methods for Elementary Teachers and TE444 Social Studies Methods for Secondary Teachers.  Strategies for acquiring and analyzing data on student achievement for assessment purposes are part of the coursework.  The State of Michigan’s Curriculum Framework, which presents the subject of assessment, is utilized extensively in the methods courses.

 

Section 3 Faculty

Instructional Faculty [TABLE]

 

 

 

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Section 4 Candidate Preparation

Submit available data specific to the program area being reviewed

 

 

 

   Summary by Test and Year

 

Subject

Test Code

Test Date

#  Examinees

Scaled Mean Score

# Pass

% Pass

# Not Pass

% Not Pass

Sub area pass %

 

 

History

9

7/15/2000

4

231.5

3

75

1

25

75

75

75

50

 

 

History

9

10/7/2000

2

215.5

1

50

1

50

50

0

0

50

 

 

History

9

1/13/2001

4

224

2

50

2

50

50

25

75

75

 

 

History

9

4/21/2001

3

215.7

1

33

2

67

33

67

0

33

 

 

History

9

7/14/2001

2

219

1

50

1

50

50

0

50

50

 

 

History

9

10/6/2001

1

209

0

1

1

100

0

0

0

 

 

 

History

9

4/20/2002

4

226

1

25

3

75

25

25

25

75

 

 

History

9

4/20/2002

2

221

1

50

1

50

0

50

50

50

 

 

History

9

7/13/2002

1

220

1

100

0

0

0

0

0

100

 

 

History

9

1/11/2003

7

230

5

71

2

29

57

86

43

71

 

 

History

9

4/12/2003

7

253.1

7

100

0

0

100

100

86

100

 

 

History

9

7/12/2003

2

211

1

50

1

50

100

50

0

50

 

 

History

9

10/18/2003

5

225

3

60

2

40

80

60

40

60

 

 

History

9

1/10/2004

4

255.5

4

100

0

0

75

100

100

50

 

 

History

9

4/3/2004

10

233.9

7

70

3

30

60

80

60

70

 

 

History

9

7/10/2004

5

214.2

1

20

4

80

20

40

60

60

 

 

History

9

10/16/2004

7

212.1

3

43

4

57

29

43

57

14

 

 

Statewide History

9

 

 

238.8

 

76

 

24

67

67

71

73

 

 

 

In those sub areas where students seem to have the greatest difficulty the history faculty get together to discuss weaknesses in the program and suggest methods of improvement. It is the intention of the department to continue to seek remedies for apparent weaknesses and to strive to improve the program as a whole.

 

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Section 5 Collaborative Partnership

  • Describe how candidates for majors and minors in specific specialty programs participate in early field experiences in K-12 schools. 
  • Describe aspects of the student teaching experience for certification candidates that enhance the applicants’ abilities to teach in this specific specialty area.  Are candidates in your institution assigned to K-12 classrooms as student teachers in both their major and minor (if applicable)? 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field placements are integrated throughout the professional education sequence beginning with TE250 Student Diversity and Schools where the focus is on tutoring experiences.  In subsequent courses, after admission to the School of Education, candidates have diverse and varied experiences of increasing responsibility and duration.  These early field experiences require a minimum of 15 hours per semester per course in focused experiences coupled with reflective journaling and fulfillment of additional course outcomes focused on the experiences.  Field experiences are required in each of the professional education core courses (TE250, TE301, TE430, TE431, TE440 and TE443) prior to entering the student teaching internship.  During the internship candidates work for approximately 22 weeks under the direct supervision of a classroom teacher and the periodic oversight of a university supervisor.  Candidates meet regularly with a university instructor for a seminar course, and are also concurrently enrolled in a graduate course each of the two semesters of the internship.  During the fall semester, candidates complete TE602 Reflection and Inquiry in Teaching Practice I examining qualitative and quantitative research methods and developing their own research based question addressing student learning.  During the spring semester students complete a second graduate level course on curriculum planning and implementation, TE605.

 

Student teaching internship placements extend across two university semesters, beginning generally with the start of the academic year in August/September and continuing through mid-April.  Candidates are strongly advised to use the transition at mid-year to change their placement venue to gain experience at a second level or subject area in the spring.  Such changes in placement do require the consent and concurrence of the building principals and teachers, and in some cases teachers wish to continue with a single student the entire time.  Wherever possible candidates are placed in situations where they can teach in both their major and minor fields, either through split morning/afternoon assignments with different teachers, or placements in different schools for each semester.

 

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Section 6 Professional Development and Support

Postponed until 2005-20012

 

 

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Section 8 Special Recognition

Optional

 

 

 

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Section 9 Instructional Methods

Describe how candidates are prepared to teach in this specific specialty area. 

Describe how this program will utilize technological resources.

 

 

 

 

Lake Superior State University teacher candidates are prepared in instructional methods through both the professional education sequence (TE150-TE444) and through courses in their History curriculum. Elementary student teachers are required to take TE420 Math Methods for Elementary Teachers, TE421 Science Methods for Elementary Teachers and TE422 social Studies Methods for Elementary Teachers.  All lesson plans and unit plans, following the format of Understanding By Design, are tied to the State of Michigan Curriculum Framework as well as the standards and benchmarks for the district in which the teacher education student will be placed. This is undertaken in an effort to assess and insure complete delivery of the curriculum. 

 

 In the professional education sequence, the secondary candidate completes TE430 General Methods for Secondary Teachers (a study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate learning...), TE440 Reading in the Content Area (a study of reading methods...) and TE444 Social Studies Methods for Secondary Teachers (curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization methods and assessment...).  Each of these courses has a required fieldwork component where the candidate applies the concepts and theories through modeling and practice lessons in secondary classrooms as appropriate to their certification. 

 

History candidates are familiar with the typical technology used in social science courses and use that equipment in research and writing papers as a part of course requirements and in various classroom presentations.  Candidates develop experience in the use of computers and various computer programs such as word processing, Excel, the Internet, and PowerPoint. They also use projectors of various types, copiers, etc.

 

 Technology is integrated throughout the professional education sequence, in fulfillment of the 7th standard of the Entry Level Standards for Michigan Teachers (ELSMT).  The School of Education uses extensive resources available for Michigan teachers to enhance their preparedness for the effective use of technology, including, for example, the Preparing Teachers for Tomorrow project through Merit (http://ptft.merit.edu) and Intel's Teach to the Future project into our professional education sequence.  This integration is reflected in many of our internal documents which are archived on the School of Education website, including the PTFT alignment matrix and the PTFT assessments per module summary.

 

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Section 10 Course Descriptions

Provide descriptions of all courses contained on Application Attachment 3.  Descriptions must provide enough information to show that standards could logically be met in these courses. 

 

 

 

Course descriptions  for each course are published in the university calendar (catalog), and reproduced here for reference.  Catalog course descriptions broadly describe course objectives, credit earned and prerequisites.  The course syllabi, provided in Section 11, are the more complete record of course content, objectives, assessment, and alignment to the content standards.

 

History Course Descriptions

 

HS101 History of World Civilization I, 4 credits.

A study of world civilization from earliest time through the baroque.

 

HS102 History of World Civilization II, 4 credits.

A study of world civilization from the baroque to the present.

 

HS131United States History I, 4 credits.

A study of United States history from the colonial settlement to the end of the American Civil War in 1865.

 

HS132 United States History II, 4 credits.

A study of United States history from the end of the Civil War to the present.

 

HS440 The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, 4 credits.

The events between 1763 and 1791which produce these documents are the United States in the historical sense. Using original documents and contemporary comments, this critical era will be studied in depth to determine whence we came.

 

HS441 Diplomatic History of the United States I, 4 credits.

American diplomacy from 1775 through the 19th century to U.S. entry into World War I in 1917. May be used as political science credit.

 

HS442 Diplomatic History of the United States II, 4 credits.

American diplomacy from the entry of the U.S. into World War I in 1917 up through the present day. Does not apply toward 300- or 400- level requirements in history.

 

HS496 Research Methods in History, 2 credits

Survey emphasizing research aids and techniques and historical analysis. Readings, discussions, and written exercises introduce students to problems, methods, and techniques of historical research. Discussion of and practice in main techniques of historical method, including bibliography and documentation.
 

HS497 Senior Seminar in History, 2 credits

Students will complete an historical research project under the supervision of a faculty member. At the end of the semester students make oral presentations to the class and invited guests, and submit the final paper.

 

GG201 World Regional Geography, 4 credits.

A study of the physical environment, resources, past and present economic development, population distribution and historical development of Europe, Asia, the Islamic Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and North America.

 

GG302 Economic Geography, 4 credits.

A study of the internal and external interrelationships of the various economic groupings of the world; i.e. North America, Europe and the emerging third world.

 

PS110 Introduction to American Government and Politics, 4 credits.

An introductory survey of American national government and politics.

 
TE422 Social Studies Methods for Elementary Teachers (2,0) 2
A student of strategies and methodologies to facilitate effective social studies instruction.  Students learn to plan and present social studies lessons and units using contemporary methods.  Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment.  Integrated technology component.  Fieldwork required.  Prerequisites:  TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program.
 
TE444 Social Studies Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3
Curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization, methods and assessment of teaching social studies to diverse secondary learners.  Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment.  Integrated technology component.  Fieldwork required.  Prerequisites:  TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to teacher education program.

 

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Section 11 Syllabi

 

Provide a representative syllabus for each required course (those listed on Application Attachment 3 and referenced in the standards matrix).

 

 

 

Major

 

History of World Civilization I

 

HS101

 

History of World Civilization II

 

HS102

 

United States History I

 

HS131

 

United States History II

 

HS132

Research Methods in History

 

HS496

 

Senior Seminar in History

 

HS497

 

World Regional Geography

 

GG201

 

Economic Geography

 

GG302

Introduction to American Government and Politics

 

PS110

Elementary Methods in Social Studies or

Secondary Methods in Social Studies

TE444

 

TE444

 

 

The courses below are elective. Students Majoring in History must select three courses from the list below, students minoring must take one course.  Elective courses are not used to meet required content standards.

 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE CONSTITUTION

 

HS440

DIPLOMATIC HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES I

 

HS441

DIPLOMATIC HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES II

 

HS442

ENGLAND IN THE MODERN WORLD

HS302

 

 

EUROPE FROM NAPOLEON TO WORLD

WAR I

HS315

EUROPE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

HS316

LATIN AMERICA

HS361

FAR EASTERN CIVILIZATION,

1850 TO THE PRESENT 

HS371

  •  

 

 

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