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New content added in July 2006 under Standards 3.0-11.0 
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Standards for the Preparation of Teachers

 

 

 

 

Chemistry (DC)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Adopted by the Michigan State Board of Education

August 8, 2002

 

 

 


 

 

Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Chemistry

(DC Endorsement)

 

Preface

 

 

Development of the Proposal

 

Over the last several years, a referent group of professional educators developed a proposal to adopt standards for the preparation of chemistry teachers.  These standards align with standards developed by the National Science Teachers Association for teacher preparation standards and the Michigan Curriculum Framework for science education.  Teachers who receive the endorsement in chemistry would be prepared to teach any chemistry course at their certificate level. 

 

To provide information and gather feedback on the proposal, a copy was also forwarded to selected groups/organizations, all Michigan teacher preparation institutions, and a random sample of intermediate and local school districts for review and comment.  As presented in this document, the standards reflect the feedback received. 

 

State Board adoption of these standards typically leads to the creation of a new certification test for teachers prepared to teach this content area.  Test development for a new Michigan Test for Teacher Certification in chemistry will be scheduled according to the recommendation of the Standing Technical Advisory Council. 

 

Approval of Programs

 

Teacher preparation institutions that wish to continue to offer programs to prepare chemistry teachers are required to submit an application for program approval that demonstrates how the new standards are met throughout the proposed curriculum.  The programs must be re-approved to show compliance with the new standards.  Following initial approval, the teacher preparation programs will be reviewed every five years through the Periodic Review/Program Evaluation process.

 


Content Guidelines/Standards Matrix

 

College/University

LAKE SUPERIOR STATE UNIVERSITYSault Sainte Marie, Michigan

Code

DC

 

Source of Guidelines/Standards

Michigan State Board of Education, August 2002

Program/Subject Area

Chemistry

 

 

Levels of proficiency are identified as follows: 

 

A – Awareness

The chemistry teacher recognizes/recalls the existence of different aspects of chemical science and related teaching strategies.

 

B – Basic Understanding

The chemistry teacher articulates knowledge about chemical science and related instructional and assessment strategies.  The chemistry teacher demonstrates proficiency in using the knowledge at a fundamental level of competence acceptable for teaching.

 

C – Comprehensive Understanding

The chemistry teacher is able to apply broad, in-depth knowledge of the different aspects of chemical science in a variety of settings.  (This level is not intended to reflect mastery; all teachers are expected to be lifelong learners.)

 

 

DIRECTIONS:    List required courses on matrix and provide additional narrative to explain how standards are met.  If electives are included, they should be clearly indicated.  Adjust size of cells as needed.

 

 

 

 

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Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

 

Standard/Guideline

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

Submit a narrative that explains how this program:

The chemistry major and minor described in this application are closely and appropriately aligned to the content standards and benchmarks defined by the State Board of Education for the preparation of chemistry teachers.  The Michigan Curriculum Framework standards are used as the basis for instructional.  Chemistry, sometimes referred to as the central science, is inseparably linked to all other science concepts, a point regularly reinforced through each of our courses.  In seeking relevant and interesting examples we often turn to applications of chemical principles from every science discipline.  Our secondary science methods course (TE443) is the capstone course in the preparation of science educators, and many of the key integrative and curriculum based standards find their place through this course.

A.

uses the Michigan Curriculum Framework K-12 Science Content Standards and Benchmarks as the critical foundation for teacher preparation, ensuring that chemistry teachers have the content knowledge and the ability to teach this curriculum; and

 

TE443

 

TE443

B.

develops an understanding of the interconnectedness of all science, including biology, the earth/space sciences, and physics, and relates this understanding to the teaching of chemistry. 

 

TE443

 

TE443

 


 

 

 

Level of

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

No.

Standard/Guideline

Proficiency

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

The preparation of chemistry teachers will enable them to:

 

 

 

1.0

understand and develop the major concepts and principles of chemistry, including concepts in inorganic, organic, analytical, physical, and biochemistry, which shall include such topics as the following:

 

 

 

1.1

Inorganic Chemistry, including

 

The major concepts of inorganic chemistry are taught through the full-year general chemistry course ( CH115/116 - 9 semester credits) and its associated required laboratory (3 hours per week).  This course is the foundation for the program, serving as prerequisite for all courses above the 200 level.  Laboratory exercises provide opportunity for both confirmation and demonstration of concepts taught in lecture, as well as a vehicle for students to construct new knowledge and understandings.  Course syllabi and expanded course objectives identify the key concepts, laboratory activities and assessment elements.  Wherever possible the nationally standardized ACS examinations are used for the final course evaluation instrument.  Students have scored consistently at or above those national norms. 

1.1.1

atomic and molecular structure and bonding

C

CH115

CH115

1.1.2

stoichiometry

C

CH115

CH115

1.1.3

thermodynamics and thermochemistry

C

CH115

CH115

1.1.4

gas laws

C

CH115

CH115

1.1.5

states of matter

C

CH115

CH115

1.1.6

equilibria

C

CH231

CH231

1.1.7

acid-base

C

CH231

CH231

1.1.8

electrochemistry

C

CH332

CH332

1.1.9

nomenclature

B

CH115

CH115

1.1.10

qualitative analysis

C

CH115

CH115

1.2

Organic Chemistry, including

 

The concepts of organic chemistry are addressed for the major through a traditional one-year organic chemistry course (CH225/226).  For the minor, students may choose to complete a survey course covering both organic and biochemistry  (CH105).  In either case the students, through lecture and extensive laboratory experiences will demonstrate the requisite knowledge and skills addressed in each standard.

1.2.1

functional groups

C

CH105

CH225

1.2.2

nomenclature

C

CH105

CH225

1.2.3

aliphatic and alicyclic reactions

A

CH105

CH225

1.2.4

stereochemistry

A

CH105

CH225

1.2.5

structure and reactivity of major functional groups

B

CH105

CH225

1.2.6

aromatic compounds

B

CH105

CH226

1.2.7

spectroscopy

B

CH105

CH225and CH332

1.2.8

heterocyclic compounds

A

CH105

CH226

1.2.9

polymers

A

CH105

CH225

1.2.10

biomolecules

A

CH105

CH226

1.3

Physical Chemistry, including

 

General Chemistry (CH115) provides instruction on many fundamental concepts addressing the standards in this section.  Laboratory experiences in general chemistry provide hands-on experiences relating to the lecture concepts, and reinforcing the application of the theories and formula.  Majors will review the key thermodynamic concepts in physical chemistry I (which has prerequisites of one-year of physics, one-year of calculus and one year of general chemistry).  Concepts of molecular spectra and spectroscopy are covered in the instrumental analysis course ch332 (which has prerequisites of 1-semester of calculus, one year of general chemistry and one semester of quantitative analysis)

1.3.1

chemical thermodynamics

B

CH115

CH361

1.3.2

thermochemistry

B

CH115

CH361

1.3.3

electrolyte solutions

B

CH231

CH361

1.3.4

measurements of physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases

C

CH115

CH361

1.3.5

phase equilibria

C

CH115

CH361

1.3.6

molecular spectra

B

CH332

CH332

1.3.7

spectroscopy

B

CH332

CH332

1.3.8

calorimetry

C

CH115

CH361

1.3.9

quantum mechanics

C

CH115

CH361

1.4

Biochemistry, including

 

Biochemistry concepts are taught to majors through the senior level biochemistry course (CH451) which has a one-year organic chemistry prerequisite.  Students completing the minor may elect to use the survey of organic and biochemistry (CH105) a course which addresses the standards at a level appropriate for a high school teacher.  Both courses incorporate extensive laboratory experiences to reinforce the topics of each standard.

1.4.1

biomolecules – proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids – their structure and function

C

CH105

CH451

1.4.2

aqueous solutions

B

CH105

CH451

1.4.3

buffers

B

CH231

CH231

1.4.4

enzyme kinetics

B

CH105

CH451

1.4.5

thermodynamics

B

CH105

CH451

1.4.6

electron transport

B

CH105

CH451

1.4.7

oxidative phosphorylation

B

CH105

CH451

1.4.8

metabolism

B

CH105

CH451

1.4.9

biosynthesis/biodegradation pathway

B

CH105

CH451

1.5

Analytical Chemistry, including

 

All students are provided with a solid training in the aspects of analytical chemistry.  Students complete the full year of quantitative and instrumental analysis with their affiliated laboratories.  The one-year general chemistry course is prerequisite to the analytical sequence, and concepts which are introduced in the first year are reviewed and extended in the second year.

1.5.1

ionic equilibria

C

CH231

CH231

1.5.2

electrochemistry

B

CH332

CH332

1.5.3

advanced separation technique – GLC and HPLC

B

CH332

CH332

1.5.4

electrochemical analysis

B

CH332

CH332

1.5.5

spectroscopic analysis

B

CH332

CH332

 


 

 

 

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

No.

Standard/Guideline

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

The preparation of high school chemistry teachers will enable teachers to:

Calculus level mathematics is a prerequisite for quantitative analysis (CH231).  Mathematics, and mathematical problem solving skills are used extensively throughout the curriculum, from stoichiometric and logarithmic problems in general chemistry, limiting reagent and percentage yield in organic, to the rigorous calculations needed in quantitative analysis.

 

TE443, Secondary Science Methods includes an advanced field placement requirement, direct instruction in issues related to classroom and laboratory instruction at the secondary level, and to demonstrating the essential skills, dispositions and knowledge of a pre-service secondary science teacher.   Through activities, demonstration lessons, field work in grade 7-12 classrooms and course assignments students provide evidence of their professional development and readiness to enter the classroom.  Evaluation standards for TE443, and the entire professional education sequence, are based on the ELSMT standards.  Assignments include aligning curriculum materials developed through the course to the Michigan Curriculum Framework.

As the reviewers are certainly aware, Standards 2 through 11 are prefaced with the statement “the preparation of high school chemistry teachers will enable teachers to …”  Our perspective in preparing the narrative for Standards 2-11 was to frame our thinking in the context of teacher specific training.  The syllabi for the content classes in chemistry do not generally specifically detail the education related outcomes of their courses, any more than they identify the specific ancillary outcomes related to the preparation of pre-service doctors, firefighters, biologists, environmental health specialists or engineers.  The content of these standards are present in the chemistry courses, but the application to the secondary classroom is implicit for education students, and explicit in TE443 and the program field experiences.  There are teaching related aspects to the content courses, and we will endeavor to make these connections explicit in the narratives below.

2.0

apply mathematics, including calculus and statistics, to investigations in chemistry and the analysis of data;

CH231 (course prerequisite is calculus (MA112 Calc for Bus. Life or higher calculus), students use statistics to analyze data)

CH231 (course prerequisite  calculus (MA112 or higher calculus), students use statistics to analyze data)

3.0

relate the concepts of chemistry to contemporary, historical, technological, and societal issues; in particular, relate concepts of chemistry to current controversies, such as those around energy uses and medical research, as well as other issues;

 

TE443

 

TE443

As is common with many chemistry textbooks, see individual syllabi for the text used in each course, those in use by the LSSU faculty employ special topics insets.  In the General Chemistry textbook (CH115/ CH116), for example, these sections are called “Facets of Chemistry,” “ Chemistry in Practice,” and “Chemistry in Action”.  These sections are designed to help students see the relevance of what they are learning.  In the first chapter of CH115 the university students can read “Experiments Leading to the Discovery of Subatomic Particles”, “The Mass Spectrometer and the Experimental Measurement of Atomic Masses”, and an article regarding the uses of gold.  Other chapters have similar applications related to the content of the chapter, and the textbooks of other courses have similar applications for their content.  For example, in CH105 Life Chemistry I - a course used in the chemistry minor- there is discussion on the impact of antibiotics on society and medicine.  However, these applications topics are not generally referenced in the table of contents of the textbook, let alone given specific notice in the syllabi.  The subjects of science technology and society is specifically discussed in Chiappetta’s 12th chapter as a part of TE443 the science methods course.

Chapter 12  Science, Technology, and Society

·    A Rationale for STS

·     What is Technology?

·    Technological Products, Systems, and Processes

·    STS Issues and Problems

·   STS Curriculum Programs

·   Considerations for STS Instruction

·  Evolution Versus Creationism in Science Teaching

·  Assessing and Reviewing

·  Resources to Examine

·  References

4.0

locate resources, design and conduct inquiry-based open-ended investigations in chemistry, interpret findings, communicate results, and make judgments based on evidence;

 

TE443

 

TE443

Laboratory experiences, required in every course in the program, integrally incorporate learner investigations.  Laboratory experiences totaling over 330 hours are required in the major, and over 210 for the minor.  During this time students gain invaluable experience in the processes and procedures for implementing chemical based investigations.  Preparing teacher candidates to lead inquiry-based open-ended investigations begins with training university students in the concepts and skills of chemical analysis, and finds its fruition in the classroom experiences of the field experience and the discussions of TE443.  While many experiments assigned through the program are focused on specific learning outcomes they might be considered to not be inquiry based.  For example in Quantitative Analysis we teach specific analytical techniques including applications of gravimetric and volumetric analysis.  The students then use these techniques for the analysis of “real-world” samples, the outcome of such analysis is open-ended as the students work to learn about the purity or contamination levels of drinking water or river sediments.  The teacher candidate applies these principles in developing activities for their secondary classrooms.  The institution has led EPA funded grants with several local districts to assist the secondary students to become active in water quality monitoring of local streams.  Through these collaborative projects our faculty, and graduates-now-teachers, have worked to apply the techniques of the university classroom to the real-world contexts of the secondary student’s world.  TE443 discusses constructivist learning theory and its application to the classroom as discussed in Chiappetta.  See also our response to Standard 10.0.

Chapter 9  Learning in Middle Grades and Secondary Schools Introduction

·         Cognitive Approaches and Strategies for Teaching Science in a Constructivist Manner

·         Assessing and Reviewing

·         Resources to Examine

·         References

 

5.0

construct new knowledge for themselves through research, reading and discussion, and reflect in an informed way on the role of science in human affairs;

 

TE443

 

TE443

The university has stressed the importance of writing through a number of initiatives.  The syllabi for CH115/ CH116 General Chemistry I/II  reflect this focus on reading writing and discussion through a mandatory writing assignment linked to the role of chemistry in modern society.  In Organic Chemistry CH225/226 students prepare posters of pharmaceutical products and make class presentations on the drugs which include molecular models of the compound and discussion of its importance to human affairs.  Through these activities the (university) students become trained in the use of the chemical literature and the application of chemical concepts.  Teacher candidates in TE443 explicitly discuss these topics through our analysis of the textbook readings by  Chiappetta addressing the nature and purposes of science education

 

Chapter 1  Thoughts and Actions of Beginning Science Teachers

·         Thoughts and Actions of Beginning Science

·         Informed and Uninformed Science Teaching

·         Assessing and Reviewing

·         References

 

Chapter 2  Purpose of Science Teaching

·         Goals and Purposes of Science Education from 1980 to the Present

·         Conclusion

·         Assessing and Reviewing

·         Resources

·         References

6.0

understand and promote the maintenance of a safe science classroom as identified by the Council of State Science Supervisors, including the appropriate use and storage of scientific equipment, and the safe storage, use, and disposal of chemicals;

 

TE443

 

TE443

TE443 is the best and most relevant place to hold a discussion of the supervision of a safe science learning environment.  Laboratory safety is essential, and explicitly discussed in the CH115/116 syllabi, in all chemistry courses.  However the discussion in a university laboratory centers on university student safety, not on the implications for science activities performed in distant (both physically and conceptually) secondary classrooms.  In the science methods course we hold discussion regarding the Council of State Science Supervisors, illustrate reference sources such as Flinn Scientific Catalogs for laboratory/school safety, and we provide discipline specific information on laboratory safety, and practice laboratory safety inspections.  We have used several different science methods textbooks over time, but each has given special attention to this important matter in a separate chapter in the textbook on science safety.  The table of contents for Chiappetta’s book, referenced in the TE443 syllabus, has been provided for the reviewer’s reference.  The chapter on laboratory safety, given a week’s instructional time in our course, addresses the discipline specific safety needs for each field of study.  Teacher candidates prepare summaries of the textbook readings, and consistently relate their appreciation for the discipline specific discussion of safety topics.  For example, the handling of animals in a biology class, the handling and disposal of waste from chemistry, and the health hazards of some minerals in earth/space science classes.

 

We wish the reviewers to consider that not every web reference provided in our comprehensive secondary science methods textbook can be expected to also be present in the syllabus.  Further, it is not an explicit goal of every science course to specifically and explicitly address the teaching standards for pre-service teacher candidates.  Some outcomes, and their application into the secondary classroom, occur through the integration of pedagogical and content knowledge – a process which requires analytical synthesis and internalization of deep science knowledge in powerful learning environments associated with the field placements.  For example, electrical engineers may be concerned about the use of ground fault interrupt circuits, but that need not be an explicitly stated in the general chemistry syllabus – even if we do have and use them in our laboratories.  Nevertheless, we recognize the intent of the reviewers, and have added reference to the CSSS resources to all course syllabi.    Laboratory safety is the topic of Chiappetta’s 14th chapter, which is discussed in TE443.

Chapter 14  Safety in the Laboratory and Classroom

·        Introduction

·        Safety and the Law

·        General Safety Responsibilities

·        Safety Goggles and Eye Protection

·        Specific Safety Guidelines for Biology

·        Specific Safety Guidelines for Chemistry

·        Safety in the Earth Science Laboratory

·        Safety Guidelines for Physics and Physical Science Laboratories

·        Radiation Safety

·        Safety Units for Students

·        Assessing and Reviewing

·        Resources to Examine

·        References

 

7.0

demonstrate competence in the practice of teaching as defined within the Entry-Level Standards for Michigan Teachers;

 

TE443

 

TE443

8.0

create and maintain an educational environment in which conceptual understanding will occur for all science students;

 

TE443

 

TE443

The syllabi for content area courses describe the content focused learning objectives and activities.  These courses are used by many major and minors.  There are generally no teacher-specific outcomes for teacher candidates identified in the syllabi, nor are there engineering- or biology- or criminalistics- or environmental health-specific outcomes explicit in the syllabi.  The content courses provide the foundation knowledge, and model learning activities focusing on the application of that knowledge.  The education courses bring the content together with the pedagogy, and through extensive pre-student teaching field experiences, and an extended student teaching internship, these are put into practice in the secondary classroom under the supervision and mentorship of a highly qualified practicing teacher.  The issues of diverse learners in science instruction is specifically and explicitly discussed in Chiappetta’s eighth chapter during TE443, the Secondary Science Methods course
 

Chapter 8  Diverse Adolescent Learners and Their Schools

·         Student Diversity

·         Equity in Science Education

·         Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

·         Gender-Inclusiveness

·         Exceptionalities

·         Adolescents' School Science Experience

·         Assessing and Reviewing

·         Resources to Examine

·         References

 

9.0

demonstrate competence in the practice of teaching through investigative experiences and by demonstrating the application of the scientific process and assessing student learning through multiple processes;

 

TE443

 

TE443

Chemistry is an extensively laboratory based curriculum.  There is a required laboratory component for each course in the program.  These laboratories focus on investigative experiences and the application of the scientific process (evidenced by the laboratory activities described in each syllabus).    These laboratories have as their focus the university teaching individuals (teacher candidates, pre-professional students, pre-engineering students, pre-firefighters and others) through and about investigative scientific processes.  The teacher candidate then uses these skills and applies them in the context of their pre-service field experiences (90 hrs prior to student teaching, and generally two semesters of supervised student teaching under the direction of a highly qualified science educator).  Chiappetta’s 13th chapter on laboratory work is discussed in TE443 where teacher candidates relate their experiences in the many chemistry laboratories to their new role as teacher and coordinator of student learning in laboratory.

Chapter 13  Laboratory and Field Work

·        What is Laboratory Work?

·        Preparing Students for Laboratory Experiences

·        Ensuring Successful Laboratory Experiences

·        Fieldwork

·        Assessing and Reviewing

·        Resources to Examine

·        References

 

10.0

develop an understanding and appreciation for the nature of scientific inquiry; and

 

TE443

 

TE443

As with Standard 9.0, the chemistry program has extensive appreciation for the nature of scientific inquiry as evidenced by our use of laboratory experiences in every course sequence.  This extent of these experiences is also noted in our response to Standard 4.0.  Teaching science through inquiry is the subject of Chiappetta’s tenth chapter which is discussed in TE443.


Chapter 10  Inquiry and Teaching Science

·        What is Inquiry?

·        Content and Process as They Relate to Inquiry and Discovery Learning

·        Strategies and Techniques for Conducting Inquiry-Based Instruction

·        Grouping and Cooperative Learning

·        Concerns Associated with Inquiry-Based Instruction

·        Assessing and Reviewing

·        Resources to Examine

·        References

11.0

understand chemistry as the study of the composition, structure, properties, reactions of matter, and the dynamic interrelations of matter.

 

TE443

 

TE443

The study of the composition, structure, properties, reactions of matter and the dynamic interrelations of matter is fundamental to the study of chemistry.  Each topic is given introduction in the General Chemistry, and reiterated though the balance of the curriculum.  The stated course objectives for CH115/ CH116 General Chemistry I/II, and the expanded objectives (CH115/CH116) certainly give considerable attention to these topics – as related to the instruction of all (university) students.  In CH105 Life Chemistry I, for example, there is discussion on carbon containing types of matter and related organic reactions with biochemical systems.  A discussion is led on the dynamics of biological systems is covered as a part of metabolism.  CH 105 discusses the carbon containing types of matter and relates 
organic reactions with biochemical systems.  A discussion of dynamics 
in biological systems is covered as part of metabolism.  The discussion of how teacher candidates connect these topics to secondary classroom instruction is more properly a discussion topic for the methods courses and the associated field experiences.

 

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