Index to changes in August 2006 resubmission

Standards addressed: 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.0


 

Standards for the Preparation of Teachers

 

 

 

 

Earth/Space Science (DH)

 

 


Adopted by the Michigan State Board of Education

August 8, 2002

 

 


 

 

Standards for the Preparation of Teachers of Earth/Space Science

(DH Endorsement)

 

Preface

 

 

Development of the Proposal

 

Over the last several years, a referent group of professional educators developed a proposal to adopt standards for the preparation of earth/space science teachers.  These standards align with standards developed by the National Science Teachers Association and the Michigan Curriculum Framework for science education.  Teachers who receive the endorsement in earth/space science would be prepared to teach any earth/space course at their certificate level. 

 

To provide information and gather feedback on the proposal, a copy was also forwarded to selected groups/organizations, all Michigan teacher preparation institutions, and a random sample of intermediate and local school districts for review and comment.  As presented in this document, the standards reflect the feedback received. 

 

State Board adoption of these standards typically leads to the creation of a new certification test for teachers prepared to teach this content area.  Test development for a new Michigan Test for Teacher Certification in earth/space science will be scheduled according to the recommendation of the Standing Technical Advisory Council. 

 

Approval of Programs

 

Teacher preparation institutions that wish to continue to offer programs to prepare earth/space science teachers are required to submit an application for program approval that demonstrates how the new standards are met throughout the proposed curriculum.  The programs must be
re-approved to show compliance with the new standards.  Following initial approval, the teacher preparation programs will be reviewed every five years through the Periodic Review/Program Evaluation process.

 

 

 

 

 


Content Guidelines/Standards Matrix

 

College/University

 

Code

DH

 

Source of Guidelines/Standards

Michigan State Board of Education, August 2002

Program/Subject Area

Earth/Space Science

 

 

Levels of proficiency are identified as follows: 

 

A – Awareness

The earth/space science teacher recognizes/recalls the existence of different aspects of earth/space science and related teaching  strategies.

 

B – Basic Understanding

The earth/space science teacher articulates knowledge about earth/space science and related instructional and assessment strategies.  The earth/space science teacher demonstrates proficiency in using the knowledge at a fundamental level of competence acceptable for teaching.

 

C – Comprehensive Understanding

The earth/space science teacher is able to apply broad, in-depth knowledge of the different aspects of earth/space science in a variety of settings.  (This level is not intended to reflect mastery; all teachers are expected to be lifelong learners.)

 

 

DIRECTIONS:    List required courses on matrix and provide additional narrative to explain how standards are met.  If electives are included, they should be clearly indicated.  Adjust size of cells as needed.

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

 

Standard/Guideline

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

Submit a narrative that explains how this program:

The Earth/space science majors and minors described in this application are closely and appropriately aligned to the content standards and benchmarks defined by the State Board of Education for the preparation of Earth/space science teachers.  The Michigan Curriculum Framework standards are used as a basis for instructional curriculum by our candidates.  Earth/space science is linked to all other science concepts including biology, chemistry, and physics, as frequently described in each of our courses.  In seeking relevant and interesting examples we often turn to applications of  principles from every science discipline.  Our secondary science methods course (TE443) is the capstone course in the preparation of science educators, and many of the key integrative and curriculum based standards find their place in our curriculum through this course

.

A.

uses the Michigan Curriculum Framework K-12 Science Content Standards and Benchmarks as the critical foundation for teacher preparation, ensuring that earth/space science teachers have the content knowledge and the ability to teach this curriculum; and

 

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

 

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

B.

develops an understanding of the interconnectedness of all science, including biology, chemistry, and physics, and relates this understanding to the teaching of the earth/space sciences.

 

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

 

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

 


 


 

Level of

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

No.

Standard/Guideline

Proficiency

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

The preparation of earth/space science teachers will enable them to:

 

 

1.0

understand earth/space science as the study of the earth and its processes and of the interaction between the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere and the relationship of the earth to the rest of the universe, which shall include such topics as the following:

 

 

1.1 Physical Geology The major concepts of historical geology are taught through the full-year general integrated physical and historical geology course (GE 121-GE 122, 8 semester credits total) and it’s associated required laboratory (2 hours per week).  These courses are the foundation for the program, serving as prerequisite for all courses above the 100 level. Topics covered in these courses include plate tectonics; concepts associated with structural geology; map reading and interpretation; fossil identification; mineral formation and identification; sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks-their formation and classification; igneous intrusives and extrusives including volcanoes and tsunamis; weathering; surficial processes; depositional environments; the evolution of the Earth, principles and evidence for evolution of life.

 

 

Laboratories and class activities provide opportunity for both confirmation and demonstration of concepts taught in lecture, as well as a vehicle for students to construct new knowledge and understandings.  Course syllabi and expanded course objectives identify the key concepts, laboratory activities and assessment elements. 

1.1.1

earth and solar system

B

This standard is addressed in both GE 121-122, Physical and Historical Geology I and II, and NS 119, Descriptive Astronomy.

This standard is addressed in both GE 121-122, Physical and Historical Geology I and II, and NS 119, Descriptive Astronomy.

1.1.2

minerals and rocks

C

GE 121;     

GE 121; GE 223 (223 objectives)

1.1.3

volcanic rocks and processes

C

GE 121;     

GE 121; GE 223 (223 objectives)

1.1.4

weathering and sedimentary rocks

C

GE 121;     

GE 121; GE 223 (223 objectives)

1.1.5

metamorphic rocks

C

GE 121

GE 121; GE 223 (223 objectives)

1.1.6

soil formation

B

GE 121

GE 121

1.1.7

mass wasting

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

1.1.8

geological time, relative and absolute dating

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

1.1.9

hydrologic cycle

C

GE 121

 GE 121; GE315

1.1.10

groundwater

C

GE 121

 GE 121; GE315

1.1.11

glaciers/glaciation

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

1.1.12

deserts/desertification

B

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

1.1.13

crusted deformation

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

1.1.14

earthquakes/mountain building

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

1.1.15

folding

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

1.1.16

plate tectonics/ocean floor

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

1.1.17

mineral resources

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 223 w/ (objectives) GE 445 w/ (expanded objectives)

1.1.18

earth’s interior

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

 

1.1.19

planetary geology

B

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

; NS 119

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

; NS 119

 

1.2

Historical Geology

 

 The major concepts of historical geology are taught through the full-year general integrated physical and historical geology course (GE 121-GE 122, 8 semester credits total) and it’s associated required laboratory (2 hours per week).  These courses are the foundation for the program, serving as prerequisite for all courses above the 100 level. Topics covered in these courses include plate tectonics; concepts associated with structural geology; map reading and interpretation; fossil identification; mineral formation and identification; sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks-their formation and classification; igneous intrusives and extrusives including volcanoes and tsunamis; weathering; surficial processes; depositional environments; the evolution

 

1.2.1

history of geology

B

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

1.2.2

depositional processes and sedimentary rocks

C

GE 121; GE 122

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 445 (445 exp. objectives)

1.2.3

fossils and fossil records through time

C

GE 121; GE 122

GE 121; GE 122; GE 445 (445 exp. objectives)

1.2.4

global tectonics through time

C

GE 121; GE 122

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

 

1.2.5

origin of the earth and Precambrian era

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

1.2.6

Paleozoic era

C

GE 121; GE 122

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

GE 445 (445 exp. objectives)

 

1.2.7

Mesozoic era

C

GE 121; GE 122

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 GE 445 w/ (expanded objectives)

1.2.8

Cenozoic era

C

GE 121; GE 122

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 GE 445 w/ (expanded objectives)

 

1.3

Oceanography

 

 This course addresses origins of the continents and oceans, physical oceanography such as  ocean basin physiography, ocean chemistry, ocean physics, and biological oceanography. It prepares students to teach these topics and to gain an understanding of the necessary standards as related to Earth science. The laboratory supports understanding of core concepts.

 

1.3.1

origins of the continents, oceans, basins, and plate tectonics

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 NS 116

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

NS 116

1.3.2

ocean basin physiography

C

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.2.1

sea floor

C

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.2.2

sediments

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 NS 116

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 NS 116

 GE 445 (445 exp. objectives)

1.3.2.3

explorations

B

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.3

ocean chemistry

C

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.4

ocean physics

B

GE 121; GE 122; NS 116

GE 121; GE 122; NS 116

1.3.5

circulation

B

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.6

climate change

C

GE 121; GE 122; NS 116

GE 121; GE 122; NS 116;  GE 445 (445 exp. objectives)

1.3.7

ocean waves and beaches

C

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object);

 NS 116

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object);

 NS 116;

 GE 445 w/ (expanded objectives)

1.3.8

biological oceanography

C

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.8.1

plankton and plants

C

NS 116

NS 116

1.3.8.2

marine life

C

GE 121; GE 122; NS 116

GE 121; GE 122; NS 116

1.3.8.3

resources

C

NS 116

NS 116

1.4

Meteorology

 

 This course provides students with core concepts in climatology/meteorology. Standards addressed include weather, climate, and atmospheric circulation. The required laboratory reinforces core concepts. A campus-based weather station is utilized.

 

1.4.1

weather

C

GG 108

108 labs

 

GG 108

108 labs

 

1.4.2

climate

C

GG 108

108 labs

 

GG 108

108 labs

 

1.4.3

atmospheric circulation

C

GG 108

108 labs

 

GG 108

108 labs

 

1.5

Astronomy

 

 

 This course addresses core concepts in space science. Natural laws, celestial spheres and constellations, seasons, fusion, stars, the origin of the universe, black holes, and similar standards are taught. The required laboratory emphasizes and reinforces the core concepts

1.5.1

celestial spheres and constellations

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.2

seasons, solstices, equinoxes

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.3

natural laws

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.3.1

Copernicus

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.3.2

Kepler

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.3.3

Newton

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.4

solar structure and energy

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.4.1

fusion

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5

stars

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5.1

magnitudes and spectra

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5.2

binary stars and masses

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5.3

birth and death of stars

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5.4

white dwarfs and neutron stars

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5.5

novae and supernovae

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.5.6

protostars and extra solar planets

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6

galaxy

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.1

types and classification

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.2

milky way

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.3

active galaxies

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.4

clusters and groups

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.5

black holes

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.6

dark matter/nature of

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.6.7

big bang and fate of universe

C

NS 119

NS 119

1.5.7

the solar system

C

NS 119

NS 119


 

 

 

Narrative Explaining how Required Courses and/or Experiences
Fulfill the Standards for Program

No.

Standard/Guideline

Secondary Minor

Secondary Major

 

The preparation of earth/space science teachers will enable them to:

TE443, Secondary Science Methods includes an advanced field placement requirement, direct instruction in issues related to classroom and laboratory instruction at the secondary level, and to demonstrating the essential skills, dispositions and knowledge of a pre-service secondary science teacher.   Through activities, demonstration lessons, field work in grade 7-12 classrooms and course assignments students provide evidence of their professional development and readiness to enter the classroom.  Evaluation standards for TE443, and the entire professional education sequence, are based on the ELSMT standards.  Assignments include aligning curriculum materials developed through the course to the Michigan Curriculum Framework.

 

2.0

apply mathematics, including statistics and precalculus, to investigations in the earth/space sciences and the analysis of data;

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

 GE315;

GE 218 (218 objectives); GE 318 (318 objectives)

 

MA111 College Algebra

MA207 Principles of Statistics

Effective with the fall of 2005, MA207 Statistics  was a program requirement for all teacher candidates.  This requirement is reflected in our Undergraduate Handbook, and stated as a requirement for graduation.  In order to simplify this application, and to address the standard for individuals seeking to add the Earth/Space science endorsement, we will add MA207 Principles of Statistics to the program requirements (major/minor/endorsement) and reflect this change in the program narrative (2.b) and on Form XX.  This change will increase the apparent program size by three semester credits.  Similarly, the Earth/Space program requires MA111 College Algebra as a departmental degree requirement.  We have added this to the major/minor endorsement requirements and reflected the change on Form XX.

3.0

relate the concepts of the earth/space sciences to contemporary, historical, technological, and societal issues; in particular, relate concepts of earth/space science to current controversies, such as those around the use of energy, exploitation of resources, and global change, as well as other issues;

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 

GE 121;

GE 122; (expand. object)

 GE 223 (223 objectives) GE315; GE 445 (445 exp. objectives)

4.0

locate resources, design and conduct inquiry-based open-ended investigations in the earth/space sciences, interpret findings, communicate results, and make judgments based on evidence;

All courses with a GE prefix are inquiry- and project based. Lab and lecture activities require literature review, independent and group investigation in lab and often in field, interpretation, and verbal and written communication

All courses with a GE prefix are inquiry- and project based. Lab and lecture activities require literature review, independent and group investigation in lab and often in field, interpretation, and verbal and written communication

Laboratory experiences, required in every course in the program, integrally incorporate learner investigations.  Laboratory experiences totaling over 330 hours are required in the major, and over 210 for the minor.  During this time students gain invaluable experience in the processes and procedures for implementing chemical based investigations.  Preparing teacher candidates to lead inquiry-based open-ended investigations begins with training university students in the concepts and skills of chemical analysis, and finds its fruition in the classroom experiences of the field experience and the discussions of TE443.  While many experiments assigned through the program are focused on specific learning outcomes they might be considered to not be inquiry based.  For example in Quantitative Analysis we teach specific analytical techniques including applications of gravimetric and volumetric analysis.  The students then use these techniques for the analysis of “real-world” samples, the outcome of such analysis is open-ended as the students work to learn about the purity or contamination levels of drinking water or river sediments.  The teacher candidate applies these principles in developing activities for their secondary classrooms.  The institution has led EPA funded grants with several local districts to assist the secondary students to become active in water quality monitoring of local streams.  Through these collaborative projects our faculty, and graduates-now-teachers, have worked to apply the techniques of the university classroom to the real-world contexts of the secondary student’s world.  TE443 discusses constructivist learning theory and its application to the classroom as discussed in Chiappetta.  See also our response to Standard 10.0.

Chapter 9  Learning in Middle Grades and Secondary Schools

Introduction

·         Cognitive Approaches and Strategies for Teaching Science in a Constructivist Manner

·         Assessing and Reviewing

·         Resources to Examine

·         References

 

5.0

construct new knowledge for themselves through research, reading and discussion, and reflect in an informed way on the role of science in human affairs;

All courses with a GE prefix are inquiry- and project based. Lab and lecture activities require literature review, independent and group investigation in lab and often in field, interpretation, and verbal and written communication

All courses with a GE prefix are inquiry- and project based. Lab and lecture activities require literature review, independent and group investigation in lab and often in field, interpretation, and verbal and written communication

6.0

understand and promote the maintenance of a safe science classroom as identified by the Council of State Science Supervisors, including the ethical and appropriate use of scientific equipment, and the safe storage, use, and disposal of materials;

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

TE443

TE443 is the best and most relevant place to hold a discussion of the supervision of a safe science learning environment.  Laboratory safety is essential, and explicitly discussed in the CH115/116 syllabi, in all courses related to Earth/Space Science.  However the discussion in a university laboratory centers on university student safety, not on the implications for science activities performed in distant (both physically and conceptually) secondary classrooms.  In the science methods course we hold discussion regarding the Council of State Science Supervisors, illustrate reference sources such as Flinn Scientific Catalogs for laboratory/school safety, and we provide discipline specific information on laboratory safety, and practice laboratory safety inspections.  We have used several different science methods textbooks over time, but each has given special attention to this important matter in a separate chapter in the textbook on science safety.  The table of contents for Chiappetta’s book, referenced in the TE443 syllabus, has been provided for the reviewer’s reference.  The chapter on laboratory safety, given a week’s instructional time in our course, addresses the discipline specific safety needs for each field of study.  Teacher candidates prepare summaries of the textbook readings, and consistently relate their appreciation for the discipline specific discussion of safety topics.  For example, the handling of animals in a biology class, the handling and disposal of waste from chemistry, and the health hazards of some minerals in earth/space science classes.

 

We wish the reviewers to consider that not every web reference provided in our comprehensive secondary science methods textbook can be expected to also be present in the syllabus.  Further, it is not an explicit goal of every science course to specifically and explicitly address the teaching standards for pre-service teacher candidates.  Some outcomes, and their application into the secondary classroom, occur through the integration of pedagogical and content knowledge – a process which requires analytical synthesis and internalization of deep science knowledge in powerful learning environments associated with the field placements.  For example, electrical engineers may be concerned about the use of ground fault interrupt circuits, but that need not be an explicitly stated in the general chemistry syllabus – even if we do have and use them in our laboratories.  Nevertheless, we recognize the intent of the reviewers, and have added reference to the CSSS resources to all course syllabi.    Laboratory safety is the topic of Chiappetta’s 14th chapter, which is discussed in TE443.

Chapter 14  Safety in the Laboratory and Classroom

·        Introduction

·        Safety and the Law

·        General Safety Responsibilities

·        Safety Goggles and Eye Protection

·        Specific Safety Guidelines for Biology

·        Specific Safety Guidelines for Chemistry

·        Safety in the Earth Science Laboratory

·        Safety Guidlines for Physics and Physical Science Laboratories

·        Radiation Safety

·        Safety Units for Students

·        Assessing and Reviewing

·        Resources to Examine

·        References

 

7.0

demonstrate competence in the practice of teaching as defined within the Entry-Level Standards for Michigan Teachers;

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

TE443

8.0

create and maintain an educational environment in which conceptual understanding will occur for all science students;

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

TE443

The syllabi for content area courses describe the content focused learning objectives and activities.  These courses are used by many major and minors.  There are generally no teacher-specific outcomes for teacher candidates identified in the syllabi, nor are there engineering- or biology- or criminalistics- or environmental health-specific outcomes explicit in the syllabi.  The content courses provide the foundation knowledge, and model learning activities focusing on the application of that knowledge.  The education courses bring the content together with the pedagogy, and through extensive pre-student teaching field experiences, and an extended student teaching internship, these are put into practice in the secondary classroom under the supervision and mentorship of a highly qualified practicing teacher.  The issues of diverse learners in science instruction is specifically and explicitly discussed in Chiappetta’s eighth chapter during TE443, the Secondary Science Methods course
 

Chapter 8  Diverse Adolescent Learners and Their Schools

·         Student Diversity

·         Equity in Science Education

·         Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

·         Gender-Inclusiveness

·         Exceptionalities

·         Adolescents' School Science Experience

·         Assessing and Reviewing

Resources to Examine

 

9.0

demonstrate competence in the practice of teaching through investigative experiences and by demonstrating the application of the scientific processes and in assessing student learning through multiple processes; and

TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers

TE443

The curriculum covered by Earth/Space Science is an extensively laboratory based curriculum.  There is a required laboratory component for each course in the program.  These laboratories focus on investigative experiences and the application of the scientific process (evidenced by the laboratory activities described in each syllabus).    These laboratories have as their focus the university teaching individuals (teacher candidates, pre-professional students, pre-engineering students, pre-firefighters and others) through and about investigative scientific processes.  The teacher candidate then uses these skills and applies them in the context of their pre-service field experiences (90 hrs prior to student teaching, and generally two semesters of supervised student teaching under the direction of a highly qualified science educator).  Chiappetta’s 13th chapter on laboratory work is discussed in TE443 where teacher candidates relate their experiences in the many chemistry laboratories to their new role as teacher and coordinator of student learning in laboratory.

Chapter 13  Laboratory and Field Work

·        What is Laboratory Work?

·        Preparing Students for Laboratory Experiences

·        Ensuring Successful Laboratory Experiences

·        Fieldwork

·        Assessing and Reviewing

·        Resources to Examine

·        References

 

10.0

develop an understanding and appreciation for the nature of scientific inquiry.

All courses with GE prefix; TE 443

All courses with GE prefix; TE 443