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Course Descriptions: Earth/Space Science (DH)

GEOLOGY
Special topics courses will be available as need and interest develop. Consult the semester course schedule for these.
 
GE115 Field Excursions in Earth Science (2,4) 4
A field- and project-based educational experience in which aspects of geology, including environmental geology, earth resources, tectonic processes and the interrelationships among geology and other natural sciences, will be addressed. Travel destinations will include regions with unique natural history. Prerequisite: SA091 or equivalent satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam. Credit can be earned for only one of NS102, GE115 and GE121.
 
GE121 Physical and Historical Geology I (3,2) 4
The study of processes and features of the rocks and surficial materials that form the Earth’s crust. Emphasis will be placed on the dynamic earth including volcanoes, plate tectonics, geologic time, catastrophic events such as earthquakes, and natural resources and their impact on society. The class requires student projects and emphasizes active problem-solving. Laboratory exercises involve minerals, rocks, topographic and geologic maps. Prerequisites: SA091 or equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or placement exam. Credit can be earned for only one of NS102, GE115, and GE121.
 
GE122 Physical and Historical Geology II (3,2) 4
The study of surficial processes and landforms in the context of their historical perspective. Emphasis will be placed on evolution of the earth; stratigraphic principles, tectonic framework of North America; landforms and depositional environments; climate, weathering, surficial processes, and sea level changes; and significant events in the history of plants and animals. Laboratory exercises involve geologic maps, invertebrate paleontology, and surficial processes including environmental applications. Prerequisite: GE121 or NS 102 or GE115.
 
GE218 Structural Geology and Tectonics (3,6) 5
A study of the deformation of the Earth through a project-centered approach that focuses on actual tectonic problems. Emphasis will be placed on descriptive, kinematic and dynamic analysis of geologic structures, deformation mechanisms and the evolution of each in the context of the regional and global geology. Prerequisite: GE122.
 
GE223 Mineralogy and Petrology (3,6) 5
A laboratory course emphasizing hand-sample techniques for identification of minerals and rocks. Major topics include: physical properties, crystalline structure, and chemical composition of minerals; classification of minerals and rocks; origins of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; plate tectonic occurrence of minerals and rock assemblages; and societal and economic significance of minerals and rocks. Prerequisite: GE122 or NS102. Pre- or corequisite: CH115.
 
GE280 Introduction to Field Geology (0,9) 3
Introduction to field methods in geology including measurement of sections, mapping techniques, and field interpretation of outcrops. A variety of geologic provinces and environments will be examined. A supply and travel fee will be charged. Prerequisites: GE218 and GE223.
 
GE290 Independent Study in Geology (1-4,0) 1-4
Special studies and/or research in geology for individuals or small seminar groups. Course content to be arranged with instructor and with approval of the school dean. This course may be repeated for a maximum of eight credits. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or higher.
 
GE311 Principles of Hydrology (3,0) alternate years 3
Origin, movement and uses of water with emphasis on water resources in relation to human needs and environmental considerations. Hydrologic principles, runoff analysis, flood routing, urban hydrology, floodplain hydraulics, groundwater hydrology. Prerequisite: PH221 or PH231. Prior computer programming experience recommended.
 
GE312 Groundwater Hydrology (3,0) alternate years 3
Uses, preservation and protection of ground water. Physics and chemistry of ground water. Influences of geological structures and ground water exploration. Hydraulics and modeling techniques for ground water and water wells. Water well design, construction and testing. Prerequisites: PH221, 222 or PH231, PH232; GE311; and a course in computer programming.

GE 315   Geoenvironmental Systems     Alternate Years               (3,6)  5 credits
The study of environmental issues in a geological context through local and regional field projects. Projects will examine issues such as flooding, shoreline erosion, slope stability, groundwater resources and contamination, and the environmental impacts of mineral and energy resource extraction. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of environmental issues through the application of geological and geophysical field data such as collecting and analyzing sediments, bedrock and sediment mapping, and well log analysis. Prerequisite: GE 280

GE 318 Tectonic Systems    Alternate Years                                 (3,6)      5 Credits
 Study of tectonic process and how these processes effect the earth and its evolution with time.  A variety of modern and ancient tectonic settings will be studied through projects and case studies. The deformational, geochemical, sedimentological and geophysical characteristics of individual tectonic settings will be evaluated and their evolution with time will be analyzed. Weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisites GE218 and GE223.

GE321 Optical Mineralogy (2,3) alternate years 3
Optical properties of minerals and their underlying principles studied by oil immersion and thin section methods. Laboratory work consists of measuring optical properties and learning to identify unknown non-opaque minerals. Prerequisite: GE221.
 
GE331 Introduction to Geophysics (4,0) alternate years 4
This course will include an introduction to gravity, magnetic, electric, seismic and radiometric geophysical techniques and their application to geophysical, geological and environmental problems. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the principles, techniques and applications of each to solving specific geologic/environmental problems and to understanding the structure and history of the earth. Prerequisite: GE112. Pre- or corequisites: MA112 or MA143 or MA151 and PH222 or PH232.
 
GE351 Invertebrate Paleontology I (3,1) alternate years 3
Common invertebrate fossils, their evolutionary trends, anatomical features and geological significance. Special emphasis upon use of fossils for geologic dating and correlation, fossil description and classification. Prerequisite: GE215.
 
GE352 Invertebrate Paleontology II (3,1) alternate years 3
Common invertebrate fossils and microfossils, their evolutionary trends, anatomical features and geological significance. Special emphasis upon use of fossils for geologic dating and correlation and use of paleontologic data. Prerequisite: GE351.
 
GE410 Engineering Geology (3,2) 4
This course examines rock types and stratigraphy, geological structures, surface processes, earth materials and methods of geological investigation in the context of behavior of soils and rocks as related to planning and construction. The course includes coverage of in-situ investigations including shallow geophysical methods and emphasizes environmental applications and concerns. Prerequisites: MA141 or MA151, CS100 or CS111, PH221 or PH231.
 
GE422 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrography (2,3) alternate years 3
Description and classification of igneous and metamorphic rocks including laboratory study of rocks in thin section. Prerequisite: GE321.
 
GE423 Sedimentary Petrography (2,2) alternate years 3
The study of the history of sedimentary rocks with emphasis placed upon depositional models. Major topics include lithology, facies and microfacies recognition and relationships, and diagenesis. Prerequisites: GE215 and GE321.
 
GE434 Geotectonics (2,2) alternate years 3
A study of the general structure of the earth with emphasis on the dynamics of continental and oceanic crust. Includes a history of geologic thought leading to plate tectonics, with appropriate laboratory and student research projects. Prerequisites: GE222 and GE216.
 
GE436 Field Geology (0,16) alternate summers 6
Six weeks of training and field experience in the observation, mapping, recording and interpretation of the great variety of geologic features in the Sault Ste. Marie region. Some extended field trips will be required. A supply and travel fee will be charged. Prerequisites: GE216 and GE222 and senior status.

GE 445 Carbonate Systems (3,6)  Alternate Years    5 credits
The study and interpretation of carbonate sediments and environments based on stratigraphic principles. Topics include biostratigraphy, facies characteristics and relationships, depositional models, diagenesis, stratigraphic diagrams and maps, and invertebrate paleontology. Weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisites: GE 280 and GE 431

GE461 Stratigraphy and Sedimentation (4,1) alternate years 4 The study and interpretation of sedimentary processes and stratigraphic principles, emphasis on sedimentary relationships and depositional environments. Prerequisite: GE215.
 
GE471 Economic Geology I (3,2) alternate years 4
A survey of major resource-forming processes, including ore deposits, industrial minerals and rocks, coal, crude oil and natural gas. Related topics include land ownership and mineral rights, exploration techniques, production methods, marketing strategies and economic aspects. Case studies related to resource exploration and extraction, as well as environmental impact of such activities, are incorporated to illustrate ethical dilemmas in the geosciences and approaches for resolving them. Laboratory exercises appropriate to the topics and a student research project. Prerequisites: GE112 and GE22 or equivalent.
 
GE472 Economic Geology II (2,2) alternate years 3
A continuation of the resource forming processes and deposits begun in GE471. Coverage of minor metals, industrial minerals, energy resources, and the economic, environmental and political aspects of the demand for limited resources are included as time permits. Student research project and field trip. Prerequisite: GE471.
 
GE490 Research Topics in Geology (1-4,0) 1-4
Special studies and/or research in geology for individuals or small seminar groups. Course content to be arranged with instructor and with approval of the school dean. This course may be repeated for a maximum of eight credits. Prerequisites: Junior standing or higher.
 
 
GEOGRAPHY
Special topics courses will be available as need and interest develop. Consult the semester course schedule for these.
 
GG106 Physical Geography: Landforms (3,2) 4
Introduction to the description and distribution of landforms with emphasis on lithospheric, hydrospheric and atmospheric relationships. Natural (physical) science credit given. Prerequisite: Completion of mathematics competency graduation requirement. Credit for both GG106 and NS107 not permitted.
 
GG108 Physical Geography: Meteorology and Climatology (3,2) 4
Introduction to earth-sun relationships, maps and elementary principles of atmospheric science. Natural (physical) science credit given. Prerequisite: MA086 or equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam. Credit for both GG108 and NS105 not permitted. on sedimentary relationships and depositional environments. Prerequisite: GE215.
 
 
 
 
NATURAL SCIENCES Special topics courses will be available as need and interest develop. Consult the semester course schedule for these.
 
NS101 Conceptual Physics (3,2) 4
A survey of basic physical science principles emphasizing their applications in daily life. Prerequisite: MA086 or equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam.
 
NS102 Introduction to Geology (3,2) 4
A survey course to acquaint students with the major concepts and phenomena inherent in a study of geology. It will also provide sufficient background for a better understanding of human relationships to the physical environment. Credit can be earned for only one of NS102, GE115 and GE121. Prerequisite: None.
 
NS103 Environmental Science (3,0) 3
An introduction to environmental concepts and a brief survey of environmental issues facing society. Emphasis is placed on solutions and the responsibility of the individual towards these solutions.
 
 
NS104 Environmental Science Laboratory (0,2) 1
Laboratory component of environmental science. Corequisite: NS103.
 
NS105 Physical Geography: Earth, Sun and Weather (3,1) alternate years 3
Study of the physical properties of the earth’s surface as they relate to weather and climate. Credit for both GG108 and NS105 not permitted. Prerequisite: None.
 
NS107 Physical Geography: Landforms and Soils (3,1) alternate years 3
Study of the physical properties of the earth’s surface as they relate to landforms and soils. Credit for both GG106 and NS107 not permitted. Prerequisite: None.
 
NS110 Chemistry in Society (3,2) 4
An applied topical course examining the issues, problems and challenges facing modern society with an emphasis on the underlying chemical principles and theories. Attention will be given to decision-making activities, to developing critical thinking skills, and to addressing social issues that relate to chemistry. Pre- or corequisite of MA092 or equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam.
 
NS116 Introduction to Oceanography (3,2) 4
A survey of the features, processes and evolution of Earth’s ocean basins. The course will examine geological, physical, chemical and ecological aspects of oceanography with an emphasis on their interrelationships and their impact on humanity. Prerequisite: none.
 
NS119 Descriptive Astronomy (3,2) 4
Introductory course with a balanced, comprehensive account of contemporary astronomy with emphasis placed on the broad principles of astronomy rather than on a chronological or historical framework. Prerequisite: MA086 or equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam. 
 
 
TEACHER EDUCATION Special topics courses will be available as need and interest develop. Consult the semester course schedule for these. 
 
TE150 Reflections on Learning and Teaching (3,0) 3 Students will examine their experiences and assumptions about schooling in order to understand the multiple roles of teachers, characteristics of effective teaching practice, and the roles of school in society. Human development (physical, emotional and cognitive) is studied in terms of teaching and learning. Fieldwork required. 
 
TE250 Student Diversity and Schools (3,0) 3 This is a study of the forms of diversity found among students and how these differences affect students’ participation in school. History and philosophy of American schools are also studied as are the legal responsibilities and rights of teachers and schools. Students study cooperative learning, questioning techniques, make school visits and plan and teach a short, engaging lesson. Fieldwork required. Prerequisite: sophomore standing and TE150 or concurrent enrollment in TE150. 
 
TE301 Learning Theory and Teaching Practice (4,0) 4 A study of contemporary theories of human learning: how they are generated, researched and applied in teaching practices. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to teaching and learning and the decisions which teachers make in applying theory to diverse classroom situations. Includes extensive classroom observations in K-12 schools. Fieldwork required. Prerequisite: TE150, TE250 and admission to teacher education program. 
 
TE330 Reading in the Elementary Classroom (3,0) 3 Study of reading as a process of constructing meaning through dynamic, interaction among reader, the text, and the context of the reading situation. Includes objectives, content, materials, organization and methods of teaching reading in the elementary school Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250 and admission to the teacher education program. Pre- or corequisite TE301. 
 
TE410 Corrective Reading in the Classroom (3,0) 3 Study of classroom methods for the diagnosis of students’ reading strengths and weaknesses. Planning and implementing corrective and remedial interventions based on diagnosis. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301, TE330 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE411 Elementary Language Arts and Methods Across the Curriculum (3,0) 3 A study of general strategies and methodologies to facilitate effective learning including the use of language arts as a vehicle for integrated curriculum. Classroom management and organization for productive learning communities are also studied. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301, TE330 and admission to teacher education program. 
 
TE420 Math Methods for Elementary Teachers (2,0) 2 A study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate effective mathematics instruction. Students learn to plan and present mathematics lessons and units using contemporary methods. Students use national and state standards and bench marks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to teacher education program.  
 
TE421 Science Methods for Elementary Teachers (2,0) 2 A study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate effective science instruction. Students learn to plan and present science lessons and units using contemporary methods. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE422 Social Studies Methods for Elementary Teachers (2,0) 2 A study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate effective social studies instruction. Students learn to plan and present social studies lessons and units using contemporary methods. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE430 General Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3 A study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate learning at the secondary level including classroom management and organization for productive learning communities. The multiple roles of the teacher in the secondary classroom are examined including participant, colleague, researcher, reflective practitioner, accountable professional, counselor and mentor. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE431 The Secondary Learner (3,0) 3  A study of the dilemmas of adolescents as they affect students in secondary schools. The course focuses on the special needs and sensitivities of adolescents and implications for instruction and classroom management. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE440 Reading in the Content Area (3,0) 3 A study of reading methods appropriate to use secondary classrooms. Includes formal and informal assessment procedures for determining students’ abilities and the accompanying strategies to enhance content area comprehension and concept development. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE441 Language Arts Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3 Curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization, methods and assessment of core subject matter to diverse learners. Includes integrated technology, laboratory and field experiences. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisite: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE442 Math Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3 Curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization, methods and assessment of teaching mathematics to diverse secondary learners. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. 
 
TE443 Science Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3 Curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization, methods and assessment of teaching science to diverse learners. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to teacher education program. 
 
TE444 Social Studies Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3 Curriculum, objectives, content, materials, organization, methods and assessment of teaching social studies to diverse secondary learners. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Fieldwork required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to teacher education program. 
 
TE445 Teaching Computer Science in the Secondary Classroom (3,0) 3 Techniques, materials and models for computer science teachers. Classroom and instructional management. Hardware and software evaluation and selection. Computer programming, including a team software development project. Web pages as an educational resource. Legal, ethical, social, economic and personal issues. Prerequisites: CS101 or CS103, CS201, TE150, TE250, TE301, and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE446 Business Education Methods for Secondary Teachers (3,0) 3 A study of strategies and methodologies to facilitate effective business course instruction. Students learn to plan and present office cluster, accounting, marketing and computer software lessons and units using contemporary methods. Students use national and state standards and benchmarks in planning instruction and assessment. Integrated technology component. Field work required. Prerequisites: TE150, TE250, TE301 and admission to the teacher education program. 
 
TE480 Internship in Teaching: Seminar (1,0) 1 A seminar course for students currently enrolled in the Internship in Teaching Diverse Learners I and ii to discuss issues in teacher education, classroom management, working with special needs students, and professional development.  This course may be repeated once for credit.  Corequisites: TE491 and TE492. 
 
TE490 Research Topics in Education (1-4) 1-4 Individual study under supervision of teacher education faculty member. May be repeated to a maximum of four credits. Prerequisites: admission to the teacher education program, senior status and permission of instructor. 
 
TE491 Internship in Teaching Diverse Learners I/Advanced Methods: [Subject] (8) 8 Directed and evaluated internship in heterogeneous  classrooms. Teaching worthwhile content to students with varied learning needs. Theoretical and field-based explorations of common teaching dilemmas. Student will spend at least 25 clock hours weekly with a teacher in a school for field teaching experience. Prerequisites: successful completion of baccalaureate degree and all previous TE courses and field  experiences. Permission and availability of participating schools. Co-requisites: TE601 and TE602. May be repeated once. 
 
TE492 Internship in Teaching Diverse Learners II/Advanced Methods: [Subject] (8) 8 Continuing internship in heterogeneous classrooms at selected schools. Increased emphasis on independent teaching. Maintaining classroom communities that ensure equitable access to important knowledge and skills. Assessing academic and social outcomes. Student will spend at least 25 clock hours weekly with a teacher in a school for field teaching experience. Prerequisites: completion of TE491 and permission and availability of participating schools. Corequisites: TE603 and TE604. May be repeated once. 
 
TE601 Professional Roles and Teaching Practices I (3,0) 3 Examination of pedagogical roles and practices in terms of teacher behaviors, learning communities, school, culture and society. Review and reform of ones own practice through use of identification of problems, data analysis and strategic planning. Prerequisite: baccalaureate degree. Corequisites: TE602 and TE491 for students enrolled in the certification program.  
 
TE602 Reflection and Inquiry in Teaching Practice I (3,0) 3 Qualitative and quantitative research methods on teaching and learning. Criteria for judging the validity and applicability of research-based knowledge. Framing educational problems worthy of inquiry. Designing and assessing studies of teaching practice. Three class contact hours of lecture, discussion, clinical work. Prerequisite: TE402. Corequisites: TE491 and TE601. May be repeated once. 
 
TE603 Professional Roles and Teaching Practices II (3,0) 3 A critical examination of the multi-dimensional aspects of teacher roles, pedagogical ethics, philosophical applications and influences on schools and learning communities. Corequisites: TE604 and TE492 for students enrolled in the certification program. 
 
TE604 Reflection and Inquiry in Teaching Practice II (3,0) 3 Collecting, analyzing and interpreting data on teaching, learning and education policy — largely through action  research in the classroom. Dilemmas surrounding research on practice. Appraising and reporting results of inquiry. Three class contact hours of lecture, discussion and clinical. Prerequisites: TE491, TE601 and TE602. Corequisites: TE492 and TE603. May be repeated once.   
 
MATHEMATICS Special topics courses will be available as needand interest develop. Consult the semester course schedule for these. Based on a series of exams each student isplaced in the beginning mathematics course judged most appropriate for successful completion and mathematical progress. For courses numbered 100 and above a student’s curriculum major also affects course selection. Courses numbered below 100 do not count toward graduation.
 
MA112 Calculus for Business and Life Sciences (4,0) 4 Limits, differentiation, applications of the derivative, integration, application of the definite integral, techniques of integration. Calculus of exponential and logarithmic functions, elementary differential equations, functions of several variables. Prerequisite: MA111 with a grade of C or better. This course will not count toward a major or minor in mathematics.  
 
MA140 Precalculus Mathematics (5,0) 5 Basic theory of functions, including polynomial, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions. Inequalities. Analytic geometry, plane trigonometry and vectors. Complex numbers. Systems of linear equations, matrices and determinants. Prerequisites: two years of high school algebra and equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam, or MA092 with a  grade of C or better, and one-half year of high school trigonometry or MA108 with a grade of C or better is strongly recommended. This course will not count toward a major or minor in mathematics. 
 
MA151 Calculus I (4,0) 4 Limits, continuity and inverse functions. Logarithmic and exponential functions. Differentiation and applications of the derivative. L’Hopital’s rule. Inverse trigonometric functions. Integration and the definite integral. Prerequisites: high school mathematics that includes two years of algebra, one year of plane geometry and one-half year of trigonometry and equivalent/satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam, or MA140 with a grade of C or better.  
 
MA152 Calculus II (4,0) 4 Applications of the definite integral. Techniques of integration and improper integrals. Infinite series. Conic sections, polar coordinates and parametric equations. Prerequisite: MA151 with a grade of C or better. 
 
MA207 Principles of Statistical Methods (3,0) 3 Descriptive statistics, probability distributions (including normal, binomial and chi-square), techniques of statistical inference including tests of hypotheses and selected nonparametric tests. (This course is a survey of elementary statistical concepts.) Prerequisite: MA086 or equivalent/ satisfactory score on ACT or Placement Exam. This course will not count toward a major in mathematics.  
 
COMPUTER SCIENCE Special topics courses will be available as needand interest develop. Consult the semester course schedule for these.
 
 CS101 Introduction to Microcomputer Applications (2,2) 3 The study of a selection of contemporary microcomputer applications, including operating systems concepts, word processing, spreadsheets, database management systems, and the Internet and World Wide Web. Brief survey of other applications, such as presentation graphics, multimedia usage and desktop publishing. Does not apply toward credit in computer science major or minor.  
 
  

 

     
 
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