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Certification Standards for the Preparation of All Elementary Teachers

Reading Instruction

Adopted by the Michigan State Board of Education

July 11, 2002

Preface and Introductory Materials: ELEMENTARY


Submitted by:_David M. Myton, Ph.D__Chair, SOE        

Contact information:   email:__dmyton@LSSU.edu _

                                  phone: _(906) 635-2811__

 Course of Study Includes:

   EDUC 330 Reading in the Elementary Classroom (3 semester credits)

   EDUC 410 Corrective Reading in the Classroom (3 semester credits)

(course number(s) and title(s))


 Institution Name        Lake Superior State University        

Address:  __650 W. Easterday, Sault Sainte Marie, MI  49783___





Standards for Professionalism in Reading

All elementary teacher candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Demonstrate professional practices when they pursue knowledge of reading and learning processes by reading professional journals and publications  (BR/BT: 2.10); and



1.     Reading articles from reading journals and publications

2.     Presentation of articles


1.    Written summary of article read and personal reflection.

2.    Oral summary of article read and discussion of personal reflection.

3.    Group discussions



Know relevant research and major theories from general education and how they have influenced literacy education; know the instructional implications of research in special education, psychology, and other fields that deal with the differentiated instruction of students (i.e., students who are English language learners, learning disabled, gifted, or have reading disabilities) (BR/BT:,;



1.       Read about relevant theory in textbook.

2.       Read about NRP and five essential components for learning to read.

3.       Journal entry reflections.

4.       Class discussions and group sharing with classroom examples.

5.       Observation, discussion and sharing of case study student(s) example.

6.       Application of research and theory based on instructional needs of case study student.

1.    Reflective journal reports on field placement, scientific-research based reading articles and textbook

2.    Group discussions of case study student(s) work samples (reading, writing and video tape)

3.    Documentation of informed instruction based on case study student behavior.



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Standards for Knowledge about Content in Reading

All elementary teacher candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Demonstrate understanding of the integrated nature of the English language arts and understand that students need opportunities to integrate their use of reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing (BR/BT:;




1.     Design mini-lesson plan to integrate language arts into content area.

2.     Present lesson plan to class.

3.     Use grade level content expectation to develop lesson plan.

4.     Implementation of planned instructional procedures based on case study student behavior.


1.     Oral presentation of mini-lessons

2.     Written lesson plan

3.      Observation and documentation of instructional procedures based on case study student.



Promote the integration of language arts in all content areas (BR/BT:;






1.     Develop mini-lesson plan to integrate language arts into content area.

2.     Use grade level content expectations to develop lesson plan.


1.    Oral and written presentation of lesson plan.



Understand reading as “the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction among the reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation” (Michigan definition of reading, 1984) (BR/BT:;





1.     Discuss and compare other definitions of reading with Michigan definition (International Reading Association)

2.     Class discussion and reflection of what reading is.

3.     Review of definition and connection with field experiences for case study portfolio.

1.     Written personal definition of reading.

2.     Discussion of Michigan and national definition.

3.     Reflection and connection of definition with field experiences (case study student)



Articulate the developmental nature of the language arts (reading, writing, speaking, listening, and visually representing)

and recognize that students progress through the emergent, developing, and fluent stages at different rates (BR/BT:;




1.     Class discussion of components of language arts and stages of development.

2.     Discussion of use of screening and progress monitoring student performance in language arts for case study student portfolio.


  1. Class reviews and reflects on writing samples and discuss the various stages of writing development.
  2. Recording and documenting student performance based on initial screening, instructional strategies and progress monitoring for case study portfolio.


Understand emergent literacy, the stages of literacy development on a continuum (including knowledge of letters and their sounds, phonemic awareness, reading words, accuracy and fluency, self-monitoring and self-correction strategies, comprehension, and reading habits), and the experiences that support it (BR/BT:;




1.  Present current stages of literacy development (Chall and Ehri) on continuum (IRA)

2. Discuss text book examples of literacy development in reading and writing stages.

3.  Observe and discuss literacy development with case study example and class examples of case study student’s work.

1. Class discussion of case study samples from classroom reading and writing and video tape.

2. Review and record specific examples of literacy developmental stages from student samples.

3.  Discuss and reflect on peer samples from case study portfolio work.


Understand the symbolic system of written language including the phonemic, morphemic, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic systems of language and their relationships to the reading process (BR/BT:;




1.     Students discuss systems in relation to reading and writing process with examples from text book and classroom samples.

2.     Student samples provided for discussion and reflection to inform instruction for application in case study portfolio.

1.Students discuss and share analysis of process from shared examples and text.

2.Record reflection and provide student documentation of reciprocity of writing and reading to inform instruction for case study portfolio.


Articulate the relationships among print-sound code, word identification, vocabulary building, fluency, and comprehension; and describe characteristic of fluent readers (BR/BT: 3.4.5);





1.     Students read about current relationships within text book.

2.     Discuss classroom examples in reading and writing (assessment examples in reading and writing and video)

3.     Administer and score IRI (informal reading inventory) assessment (pre/post) for case study student.

4.     Discuss relationships between vocabulary, comprehension and fluency based on case study student example(s).


1.    Students write reflection in journals.

2.    Students discuss relationships through use of common classroom examples.

3.    Record and reflect on assessment and how it informs instruction for case study student.

4.    Present to peers on instruction and assessment informing instruction for case study student.


Understand the processes of second language acquisition and the implications for developing oral language, reading, and writing proficiency (BR/BT:; and



1.     Students discuss common examples of ELL student through development of oral language in reading and writing assessments.

2.     Discuss and/or observe example(s) of case study student’s development in oral language, reading and writing


1.     Students share and discuss student samples of oral reading records and written work to aid in the development of oral language proficiency in reading and writing.

2.     Reflect and record case study samples of oral language, reading and writing


Understand the social, cultural, and dynamic nature of language, particularly the reciprocal relationship between language, culture, and individual identity, and how language choices

advance and constrain people; and perceive the impact of physical, perceptual, emotional,

social, cultural, environmental, and intellectual factors on learning, language development, and reading acquisition (BR/BT:





1.  Students discuss common questions and concerns on relationship between language, culture and identity. 

2.  Book sharing presentations in class and use in classroom.

3.  Discuss and hypothesis the reciprocity of language, culture, and identity with individual case study student examples (whole class).


1.  Students write reflections in responsive journals.

2.  Book sharing presentation highlighting diversity (cultural and language) and its use in the classroom. 

3. Written summary of book use in classroom.

4.  Sharing discussion (whole group) and record reflections (individual) of case study student’s individual instruction plan.


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Standards for Knowledge about Students

All elementary teacher candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Understand how contextual factors in the classroom can influence students’ learning and reading (e.g., grouping procedures, reading across the curriculum, types of reading tasks, assessment) (BR/BT:;





1.  Class reading textbook and/or articles on factors influencing student learning.

2.  Video samples and discussion of classroom model of grouping procedures.

3.  Discussion of 3 tier model - special education and differentiated instruction with (whole, small and individual) classroom instruction model in reference to case study student.

1. Journal reflections

2. Article critique – individual written summary and reflection and group shared summary and reflection.

3. Class discussion and reflection of field experience placement – grouping, reading and curriculum and reading assessments used)

4. Record observations in field work journal and discuss on-going case study reflections.



Recognize the importance of providing learning opportunities in all aspects of literacy (e.g., as readers, writers, thinkers, reactors, responders) (BR/BT:;




1.     Class discussion and sharing – small group and whole group

2.     Individual reflection of personal history of learning to read and become literate.

3.     Discuss field placement experience whole group.

4.     Observation and discussion of field placement experiences based on case study student’s opportunities.

1.     Fieldwork placement reflection and summary notes.

2.     Journal reflections

3.     Written reflection of personal history of becoming literate.

4.     Record of opportunities observed and provided based on classroom and individual instruction of case study student.


Recognize how differences among learners influence their literacy development and implement programs to address the strengths and needs of individual learners, including students with learning disabilities and students who are gifted (BR/BT: 4.1.2);





1.     Read and discuss case study examples from classroom teachers.

2.     Students reflect and share their personal journey to becoming literate.

3.     Discuss field experience opportunities for examples of literacy development.

4.     Analysis of pre/post assessments in case study.

5.     Review development of student strengths and needs in case study presentation.

1.     Presentation of group critique articles.

2.     Written summary and reflection of article critique.

3.     Fieldwork notes and reflections.

4.     Presentation of case study student’s strengths and needs.

5.     Documentation of case study student’s development based on observation, assessment and instructional procedures.



Understand the influence of students’ culture and language on their reading acquisition, reading comprehension, and instructional needs (BR/BT:;





1.     Read text book and article information of influence reading acquisition with culture and language

2.     Examine examples of student samples of reading and writing and discuss instructional strategies.

3.     Observe and apply assessment to inform instruction for case study student’s needs.

1.    Discuss field placement observations.

2.    Discussion of specific student examples in reading and comprehension.

3.    Reflection and documentation of individual case study student progress.

4.    Observation and discussion of colleague case study student progress.


Understand the nature and multiple causes of reading disabilities and articulate principles for differentiated instruction addressing the needs of all learners (i.e., students who are English language learners, learning disabled, gifted, or have reading disabilities) (BR/BT 5.1);




1.     Students read and discuss text book content related to adaptive instruction for ELL, LD, gifted and struggling readers

2.     Read and discuss the nature and cause of reading disabilities.

3.     Reflect and discuss case study student instructional needs throughout classes.

  1. Discuss how to address issues and behaviors concerning diverse learning.
  2. Document observation for case study student in field journal.
  3. Record and implement instruction based on student behavior.
  4. Discuss instructional adaptations on student issues in class discussions (small group and whole group)


Be aware of individualized and group instructional interventions targeted across a continuum of learning toward accelerating each student’s achievement (BR/BT 5.2); and




1.     Read, discuss and watch video segments of various instructional interventions based on 3 tier model. (whole group, small group and one-on-one)

2.     Model and discuss instructional strategies candidates may use.

3.     Observation and discussion of instructional strategies for individual case study student and reflection on whole/small group instructional needs.

  1. Students discuss and question variety of early interventions.
  2. Students discuss field placement experiences from classrooms.
  3. Personal written feedback in fieldwork journals and reflective journals. 
  4. Reflection, documentation, and recording of instructional strategies for case study student – individual and classroom.


Adapt instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners to accomplish a variety of purposes (BR/BT 5.5.2).



1.     Read and discuss text book information about adaptation of instruction.

2.     Discuss fieldwork experiences from variety of classroom models.

3.     Observation of Reading Recovery lesson with at-risk student.

4.     Case study assignment with struggling elementary student.

1.     Written reflections on what information from text book and classroom discussion can be used with diverse learners.

2.     Peer group discussion of fieldwork observations.

3.     Observation, reflection and recording on instruction of case study student for informing instruction.




Standards for Knowledge about Assessment

All elementary teacher candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Use assessment practices based on learning theories and research in literacy (BR/BT:;




1.     Read text chapters and articles about scientifically researched based assessment.

2.     Examine different models of assessment.

3.     Discuss case study examples of oral reading records, writing and oral language assessments.

4.     Use and apply assessments based on theory and research for case study assignment.

1.     Discuss and record observations of student strengths based on assessments in literacy.

2.     Reflect individually and in group sharing about the selection of assessments.

3.     Reflect and record case study assignment based on group sharing.


Employ assessment practices that are aligned with literacy goals, curriculum, and instruction (BR/BT:;




1.     Discuss and observe assessment aligned with goals, curriculum and instruction from classroom examples.

2.     Observe and discuss video taped examples of practice assessments.

3.     Administer and evaluate assessment for case study student (IRI, and classroom alignment)

1.    Students will discuss and record information of various assessments based on early literacy instruction.

2.    Administer, record and evaluate assessment for case study student.



Use a variety of classroom assessment techniques in planning for and supporting instruction, such as performance assessment, portfolios, rubrics, checklists, anecdotal records, and projects (BR/BT:;




1.     Discuss and read text book assessment instruments useful in elementary classrooms.

2.     Observe and score some classroom assessment techniques for instructional planning.

3.     Discuss and observe classroom assessment techniques in field placement for case study.

1.     Students will administer assessment instruments with students in fieldwork (rubric, checklists…)

2.     Students will observe and record examples of classroom assessments to discuss student strengths and instructional planning.

3.     Record observations of classroom assessment techniques in case study summary.

4.     Record information of assessments used in case study assignment for evidence informing instruction.



Select, create, and correctly interpret results of developmentally appropriate tools and various measurements used for assessment and evaluation (BR/BT;




1.     Score and record a sample of assessment measures for instructional planning.

2.     Discuss interpretation of results for individual and group instruction.

3.     Administer and interpret results of pre/post assessments.

4.     Create, administer and critique Cloze assessment.

1.            Discuss and record how to use the data to inform classroom instructional methods. 

2.            Students will record and document what is observed.

3.            Administer and interpret informal reading inventory (MLPP, DRA etc.) to case study student.

4.            Create and evaluate Cloze assessment for case study student.



Use information from a balance of formal and informal assessments, including standardized tests; state assessments, such as the Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP), the Michigan Literacy Progress Profile (MLPP); and classroom assessments for a variety of formative and summative evaluation purposes (BR/BT:;




1.     Students will observe and administer practice assessments examples.

2.     Observe and discuss state assessments (MEAP).

3.     Discuss formal and informal assessment comparison of local district data.

4.     Discuss student data samples.

5.     Observe and discuss student samples of informal reading assessments and district standardized data.

6.     Discuss example of case study student information in class as well as presentation of all student case study information.

1.          Observe, record and discuss informal assessments.

2.          Group discussion of formal and informal assessment comparison from case study student data samples.

3.          Observation of student case study student information.

4.          Discuss and record example case study student – formal and informal assessment for evaluation.


Evaluate students’ print and non-print texts using appropriate assessments such as rubrics that represent rigorous standards and reflect the critical components of the Michigan English Language Arts Content Standards and Benchmarks (BR/BT:; and




1.     Discuss text book information assessment for text (print and non-print)

2.     Discuss field work examples of assessments used in classrooms.

3.     Review text appropriateness with case study student based on informal reading inventory, oral running records, or miscue analysis.

1.     Students evaluate and discuss student texts.

2.     Observation, evaluation and recorded reflection of text appropriateness in case study report.



Evaluate students’ ability to: use phonics to decode and recognize words; to read with accuracy and fluency; to determine the meaning of unfamiliar

words and concepts (Vocabulary); to construct meaning from a variety of texts; and to know and use monitoring and fix-up strategies to overcome difficulties when constructing and conveying meaning across a wide range of situations as appropriate for different developmental levels (BR/BT:




1.     Read text book information concerning phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and teaching for strategic activity with developmentally appropriate text.

2.     Evaluate student work samples to understand and reflect on evaluation and guide instruction.

3.     Discuss appropriate instructional methods based on classroom samples.

4.     Administration of informal reading inventory to case study student.

5.     Observation in field placement classroom.

6.     Evaluation of necessary instruction for case study student.

1.     Students will complete an assessment of a case study student (video) using a variety of assessment tools to discuss and evaluate a student strengths and to guide classroom instruction.

2.     Administer and evaluate on-going observation and informal reading inventory to case study student to guide instruction.

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Standards for Knowledge about Reading Instruction

All elementary teach candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Use texts to stimulate interest, promote reading growth, foster appreciation for the written word, and increase the motivation for learners to read widely and independently for information, pleasure, and personal growth (BR/BT:;




1.    Present mini-lesson presentation to class.

2.    Discuss and present a trade book to class.

3.    Small group/whole class discussions of text book.

4.    Direct application with student in case study assignment.


1.    Written mini-lesson summary.

2.    Written source of resources used in classroom.

3.    Written documentation of selection of developmentally appropriate text selection for specific classroom.

4.    On-going observation, reflection and recording of assisting case study student.


Teach students how to use effective listening strategies and elements of effective speaking (BR/BT:;




1.    Discuss use of oral language rubric.

2.    Discuss text book information relating to listening and speaking

3.    On-going discussion of case study student progress

1.    Observe and evaluate oral language rubric based on student samples.

2.    Presentation of case study student – history, pre-assessment, intervention plan, post assessment, and reflection.


Describe and use mechanics, including figurative and descriptive language, spelling, punctuation, and grammar, that facilitate understanding in all the language arts (BR/BT: 3.3.1);




1.    Review text book for understanding in language arts.

2.    Discuss and use samples of writing rubrics. (6+1 Trait writing and MLPP)

3.    Review and discuss classroom and case study requirements.

1.   Evaluate samples of student writing samples.

2.   Discuss change over time in student pre/post assessment

3.   Written assignments submitted for case study and fieldwork portfolio.


Explain that readers need to have and use a variety of word identification approaches and strategies involving phonemic awareness:  systematic, explicit

phonics, sight words (oral reading fluency), spelling, structural analysis, context clues, and prior knowledge (BR/BT: 3.4.4);




1.    Use updated MLPP training modules (Foundations, TRA)

2.    Use student samples for analysis and guiding instructional practices.

3.    Discuss and apply variety of approaches with example from case studies.

  1. Discuss and review student samples for planning instruction.
  2. Discuss in small groups - information concerning different instructional approaches, and teaching for strategies
  3. Record various researched based approaches for instruction based on student samples.


List and describe a variety of strategies for learning vocabulary for various types of text materials (BR/BT: 3.4.6);




1. Discuss and describe variety of strategies text book, updated scientifically researched based articles

2.  Discuss and review case study samples, and field work observations.

1. Record different strategies for teaching vocabulary to guide instruction.

2. Evaluate and record different examples for vocabulary instruction



Know a variety of ways to promote comprehension, including, but not limited to, using comprehension strategies that support interactions with a variety of texts; modeling a variety of questions; connecting prior knowledge with new information; and using various aspects, such as intentional vocabulary development, written conventions, text structures, and genres (BR/BT: 3.4.7);



1.    Discuss text book examples.

2.    Discuss and observe student samples from classrooms.

3.    Students respond to professional journals.

4.    Discuss case study student in small groups and student samples information to determine appropriate instruction.

1.    Reflective journal entry.

2.    Observation in classroom with written notes in field notes.

3.    Summary and reflection of article critique.

4.    Observation, recording and discussion of case study students’ on-going progress.


Analyze oral, written, and visual texts to determine style, voice, and language choices and to evaluate appropriateness to context, purpose, and audience (BR/BT:;



1.    Presentation of 6+1 Writing traits and literature link

2.    Text book discussion

3.    Student presentation of mini-lesson

4.    Student report of case study student information.

1.    Student presentation of mini-lesson and written report.

2.    Analysis of text to evaluate appropriateness

3.    Presentation and written report submitted from field work with case study student.


Identify and use aspects of the craft of the speaker, writer, and illustrator to formulate and express their ideas artistically (BR/BT: 3.3.4);





1.    Student lesson presentations

2.    Student critiques summary

3.    Student book sharing

4.    Student presentation of final field work and case study information.

1.    Student mini-lesson plan presentation

2.    Student critique summary discussion.

3.    Student book presentation

4.    Student presentation of case study student information.


Explore and describe the characteristics and textual aids of both narrative and expository texts and how they are used to convey meaning (BR/BT: 3.3.3);



1.  Students discuss narrative and expository text choice and use in elementary classroom from text book and field placement experiences

2.  Variety of sample texts for observation and discussion.

1.  Class discussion of text choice in elementary classroom

2.  Evaluate and discuss samples of text (narrative and expository) for use in classroom environment.


Describe the nature of the writing process (i.e., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing) and teach strategies for each step of the process (BR/BT: 3.4.3);



1.    Overview of 6+1 Trait writing

2.    Presentation of trait writing, scoring and student samples.

3.    Discussion of writing process in application to case study student needs.

1.    Use rubric to evaluate student samples.

2.    Evaluate, observe and discuss case study student writing for instructional strategies (whole group sharing)


Guide students to refine their spelling knowledge through reading and writing (BR/BT:;



1.    Discussion of spelling and writing from text book.

2.    Observation and discussion of student samples (spelling inventory)

3.    Guide students based on case study student samples – individual, small group and whole group instruction

1.    Discuss student writing samples from elementary classroom

2.    Evaluate student writing samples from classroom

3.    Discuss and evaluate student sample of spelling inventory

4.    Discuss and record student spelling in reading and writing based on case study and student samples


Evaluate students’ use of the writing process to construct texts and to write fluently in a variety of genre (BR/BT:; and





1. Score some examples of student writing from elementary classroom (MLPP)

2.  Discuss writing process from text book.

3. Evaluate samples from case study student classroom environment and assessments.


1.    Discuss and evaluate some examples of student writing rubrics (MLPP).

2.    Observe and record student writing samples for appropriate instruction for case study student.



Know a variety of study strategies such as locating and using a variety of print, non-print, and electronic reference sources; varying reading rate according to purpose(s) and

difficulty of the material; and identify techniques for effective time management, organizing and remembering information and test taking (BR/BT: 3.4.9). 



1.    Discuss and study note taking techniques and organization from text book.

2.    Discuss and evaluate field placement examples.

1.    Group discussion in class about various strategies used, read in text and personal observation in field placement.


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Standards for Knowledge about Inquiry

All elementary teacher candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Recognize the value of learning through genuine inquiry and strategies for guiding students to set their own goals, select appropriate resources for investigating topics, organize and interpret data to draw inferences, and present their conclusions (BR/BT: 3.4.10);




1.    Discuss text book definition and examples and preparation of data.

2.    Student sample information from classroom

3.    Pre/post assessment data collection of case study student information

4.    On-going observation and feedback for  instructional implementation

1.    Analysis and evaluation of student samples from classroom

2.    Implementation and observation of student progress based on initial assessment as well as follow up assessment


Assist students in selecting and using various methods of interpersonal, small-group, and public discourse to explore an idea (BR/BT:;




1.    Discuss and observe lessons promoting differentiated instruction

2.    Read and discuss journal articles

3.    On-going reflection, feedback, and work samples of case study student progress as a guide

1.    Evidence of differentiation in mini-lesson

2.    Journal reflections

3.    Reports on article critiques

4.     Oral and written reports on case study student progress one-on-one, small group and whole group instruction


Recognize the importance of responding personally, analytically, and critically to a variety of written texts (BR/BT:; and




1.       Reflective journals

2.       Article critiques with personal and critical response

3.        Case study review and reflection of personal, analytical, and critical response


1.    Written response to articles summary, personal comments and critical analysis.

2.    Case study history, report and reflection of student progress over time.



Guide students to determine their purposes and audiences for communication and investigations; and to choose those elements or language, media, delivery, and genre that most effectively shape their print and non-print texts (BR/BT:



1.       Presentation of critiques (small group)

2.       Presentation of book study (whole group)

3.       Discussion of appropriate purpose and technique for specific audiences

4.       Presentation of case study and fieldwork portfolio.

1.    Use and evaluation of appropriate presentation rubric

2.    Graded activities


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Standards for Knowledge about Communication with Community

All elementary teacher candidates will:



Current Level

Examples of How Standard can be met (Teaching/Learning Activities)

Examples of Evidence of Standard Met


Communicate effectively with parents and students about learners’ progress and development (BR/BT:; and



1.  Highlight and discuss effective communication methods about student progress with parents and classroom environment.

1.  Evaluate and record effective communication with parents for classroom.


Implement effective strategies to include parents as partners in the literacy development of their children (BR/BT:



1. Discuss and apply ideas in class from text book and field experience to involve parents.


1.   Discuss, evaluate and record ideas from text and class to involve parents in class and school.




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Lake Superior State University  

School of Education – Crawford Hall

650 W. Easterday Ave.   Sault Sainte Marie , MI   49783

(906) 635-2811  Fax: (906) 635-7565  http://education.lssu.edu