<<Return to Index

Certification Standards for the Preparation 
of All Secondary Teachers


Reading Instruction


Adopted by the Michigan State Board of Education

July 11, 2002


Preface and Introductory Materials: SECONDARY


Submitted by:_David M. Myton, Ph.D__Chair, SOE                 

Contact information:   email:__dmyton@LSSU.edu _  

                                  phone: _(906) 635-2811__


Course of Study Includes: 

   EDUC440 Reading in the Content Areas (3 semester credits)  (supplemental materials)

(course number(s) and title(s))


Institution Name    Lake Superior State University        

Address:  __650 W. Easterday, Sault Sainte Marie, MI  49783___






Explanation of how standards are met in required reading courses

Standards for Professionalism in Reading

All secondary teacher candidates will:





demonstrate professional practices when they pursue knowledge of reading and learning processes; and


·        participate in professional organizations

·        read professional journals and publications


1.      Written and/or oral summaries of articles read.

2.      Oral presentations of articles.

3.      Group discussions.

4.      Summarize, personal reactions.

5.      Summary of article that relates to field placement.


know major theories and relevant research from general education, special education, psychology, and other fields. 


·        know how theories and research have influenced literacy education and practices for differentiating instruction of all students (e.g., students who are English language learners, learning disabled, gifted, or have reading disabilities)


1.      Written and oral reports of research projects chosen from studies reviewed by the National Research Panel (NRP website), or from reputable journals.

2.      Lesson plans developed that show accommodations.

3.      Look in journals for evidence in their entries.

4.      Give situation to groups and have them decide how to instruct.

5.      Stories-written reflection on the experience.

Standards for Knowledge about Content in Reading

All secondary teacher candidates will:



 <<Return to Index


demonstrate understanding of the integrated nature of the English language arts across all content areas;


·        understand that students need opportunities to integrate their use of the six language arts: reading, writing, listening, speaking, viewing, and visually representing


1.      Written and/or oral presentations of lesson plans.

2.      Actually doing the lesson in field experiences and doing a reflection.

3.      Observation of the lesson by field instructor.  Videotape of lesson.

4.      Written content area unit plans.

5.      Thematic units.

6.      Interdisciplinary units.


understand reading as “the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction among the reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the written language, and the context of the reading situation”;


·        Michigan Definition of Reading, 1984


1.      Analysis of prior knowledge required to understand various content texts in lesson plans.


articulate the developmental nature of literacy on a continuum of emergent, developing, and fluent levels and the experiences that support the continuum;


·        be aware of how knowledge of letters and their sounds, phonemic awareness, and word recognition contribute to reading success 

·        understand how accuracy, fluency, phonics, vocabulary, self-monitoring and self-correction strategies, spelling patterns, comprehension, and reading habits contribute to literacy development


1.      Students examine writing samples and match them to the various stages of writing development.

2.      Students describe activities that enhance literacy development at various stages along the literacy continuum.



understand the symbolic system of written language;


·        recognize phonemic subsystem of language

·        Understand phonetic, morphemic, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic subsystems of language and their relationships to the reading process


1. Students analyze writing samples from second language learners to identify the variance of language patterns.

 2.  discussion of seven vocabulary development strategies such as the Frayer Model and in groups,
students used chart paper and explained the strategy to the class using vocabulary words from their subject area.


understand the processes of second language acquisition and the implications for developing oral language, reading, and writing proficiency; and


·        adapt content materials and differentiate instruction 


1.      Students list a variety of strategies they can employ to enhance the literacy development of second language learners.


understand the social, cultural, and dynamic nature of language. 


·        recognize the reciprocal relationship among language, culture, and individual identity

·        know how language choices advance and constrain people

·        understand the impact of physical, perceptual, emotional, social, cultural, environmental, and intellectual factors on learning, language development, reading acquisition, and comprehension


1.      Students’ write responses to scenarios and case studies that reflect classroom problems influenced by language and culture.

2.      Response journals.

3.      Students collaborate with special education students and second language learners to develop accommodations to content lessons.

Standards for Knowledge about Students

All secondary teacher candidates will



 <<Return to Index


Understand how contextual factors in the classroom influence student learning and reading;


·        use appropriate grouping procedures, content area reading strategies, reading tasks, and assessment


1.      Have students prepare a document explaining how various grouping techniques would work.

2.      Have students develop a unit plan in which these topics are addressed.

3.      Response journals.


describe characteristics of fluent readers;


·        articulate the relationships among print-sound code (phonics), word identification, vocabulary building, spelling patterns, fluency, and comprehension


 1.  discussion of seven vocabulary development strategies such as the Frayer Model and in groups,
students used chart paper and explained the strategy to the class using vocabulary words from their subject area.


know and implement practices that address the strengths and needs of all learners;


·        include students with learning disabilities, English language learners, struggling readers, and gifted learners


1.      Create lesson plans that would address differentiated instruction useful   for meeting the needs of varied students.

2.      Document observations and how to address issues/behaviors noted.



recognize and provide differentiated instruction for students with reading disorders; and


·        use informal observations to discover problems with fluency, accuracy, comprehension, vocabulary, retention, prior knowledge

·        use informal observations and consultation with parents and specialists regarding possible physical, social, emotional, cultural, socio-economic, and cognitive challenges

·        select appropriate instructional materials to facilitate learning


1.      Create lesson plans that would    address differentiated instruction useful   for meeting the needs of varied students.

2.      Document observations and how to address issues/behaviors noted.



provide instruction and support for students with reading disorders. 


·        advocate for appropriate intervention and support services

·        work in coordination with specialists to modify curriculum, instruction, assessment and follow-up


1.      Create differentiated lesson plans that would meet the needs individual learners.

2.      Field notes on classroom observations of students with reading disorders.

Standards for Knowledge about Assessment

All secondary teacher candidates will:



 <<Return to Index


employ assessment practices based on learning theories and aligned with literacy goals, curriculum standards, and instruction that reflect high expectations for all students; and


·        use classroom assessment techniques to plan and support instruction (performance assessment, portfolios, rubrics, checklists, anecdotal records, unit tests, and projects)

·        evaluate student print and non-print texts using appropriate assessments (rubrics that represent rigorous standards and reflect the components of the Michigan English Language Arts Content Standards and Benchmarks)


1.      Have class activities in which students develop knowledge about a variety of assessment instruments useful in the classroom. Create a class list.

2.      Design lesson plans to demonstrate knowledge of usage of tools.

3.      Document observations and positive/negative behaviors displayed. Identify methods for correction or enhancement of these.

4.      Have the class make samples of varied assessment instruments such as rubrics, checklists, etc. and be able to explain when they would be used.

5.      Create lesson plans that reflect ability to administer a reading inventory and diagnosis areas of strengths and weaknesses.

6.      Verbally demonstrate understanding of the standards.

7. Activity to write narrative discussing reading standards, and candidate's progress toward meeting the standards



interpret and use information from both formal and informal assessments. 


·        use a variety of formative and summative assessment tools to guide instructional decisions

·        understand that standardized tests and state assessments, as well as classroom assessments, can be used to guide instructional decisions


1.      Dual journal along with rubric become evidence of learning

2.      Dual entry journals

3.      Written piece and think aloud.

4.      Develop a data analysis assignment of classroom or state assessment data.

5. students practiced the use of the Cloze procedure whereby students fill in the blanks on a guide sheet as a means of utilizing context

Standards for Knowledge about Reading Instruction

All secondary teacher candidates will:



 <<Return to Index


increase the motivation for learners to read widely and independently for information, pleasure, and personal growth;


·        use a variety of texts to stimulate interest

·        promote reading growth

·        foster vocabulary development and appreciation for the written word


1.      Lesson plan. 

2.      Analysis of the content text.

3.      Dual entry journal.


teach and model effective listening and speaking strategies within content areas;


·        assist students in selecting and using various methods of interpersonal, small-group, and public discourse to explore an idea


 1. students completed a formal seminar explaining the development of a unit of study incorporating Bloom's Taxonomy.


incorporate language conventions to facilitate understanding in all content areas;


·        emphasize figurative and descriptive language, spelling, punctuation, grammar, and language use

·        guide students in refining spelling knowledge through reading and writing


1. standards in all work related to correct and appropriate use of language and writing quality


understand that readers need to have and use a variety of word identification approaches and strategies in reading content area materials;



·        model and teach strategies for using structural analysis, context clues, spelling, and prior knowledge


 1. students practiced the use of the cloze procedure whereby students fill in the blanks on a guide sheet as a means of utilizing context


present and utilize a variety of strategies for learning content-area vocabulary;


·        utilize strategies for conceptual development including graphic organizers

·        utilize context clues

·        utilize reference tools including dictionary, thesaurus, and electronic sources

·        utilize word study including, roots, prefixes and suffixes


1.  students practiced the use of the Cloze procedure whereby students fill in the blanks on a guide sheet as a means of utilizing context


know and utilize a variety of ways to promote comprehension of texts within the content areas;


·        use comprehension strategies that support interactions with a variety of texts before, during, and after reading

·        model a variety of fix-up strategies to use when meaning breaks down.

·        model a variety of questioning strategies

·        connect prior knowledge with new information

·        teach various aspects of text structure and genres to enhance understanding


 1.  students were given and discussed a series of posters to be displayed in classrooms related to reading comprehension: before, during and after reading.


analyze how oral, written, and visual texts convey meaning;


·        recognize how style, voice, and language choices influence meaning

·        evaluate appropriateness of style, voice, and language choices in relationship to context, purpose, and audience

·        identify aspects of the craft of the speaker, writer, and illustrator that creatively express ideas in content areas


1.      Using various content texts and library resources evaluate for density of text, style, voice and language that supports or hinders learning.

2. Class activity on impact of style, voice and language choices, oral reading to creatively expressing meaning and facilitate learning


understand the characteristics of texts and how textual aids enhance comprehension;


·        recognize elements of fiction and non-fiction, including imaginative, narrative, and expository texts

·        include textual aids such as pictures, graphs, charts, italics, bold, etc.


1.      Lesson Plan and the rubric for the lesson evaluation.

2.      Self –evaluation of various forms of writing and various aides in the writing process, value for conveying meaning of each.

3.      Evaluate according to teacher-created rubric and self-created rubric.


understand the importance of having students respond in a variety of ways to texts;


·        utilize personal, analytical, and critical response


 1. Standard 24 - students studied models for the development of thematic
units which allow for personal, analytical and critical responses.
   Standard 24 - second part - students critiqued writing instructions,
grading sheets and rubrics related to a variety of process writing
assignments used by classroom teachers.


utilize the writing process; and


·        understand the nature of the writing process

·        teach prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing

·        provide appropriate scaffolding strategies

·        evaluate student use within content areas


 1. students "utilize the writing process"  through discussions in review article reading and use drafting/revising/editing/publishing as a component in their lesson plans and submissions to the electronic portfolio


know and utilize a variety of study strategies for comprehending and learning content-area information. 


·        locate and use a variety of print, non-print, and electronic reference sources

·        vary reading rate according to purpose(s) and difficulty of the material

·        teach techniques for effective time management, organizing and remembering information and test taking


1.      Study Strategy Idea File and peer evaluation.

2.      Mini-lesson handout and peer evaluation.

3.  related to study skills - students created a study skills booklet with activities related to studying, library research and the use of
textbook skills.

Standards for Knowledge about Inquiry

All secondary teacher candidates will:



 <<Return to Index


recognize the value of learning through genuine inquiry and utilize strategies for fostering student inquiry; and


·        guide students in setting personal learning goals and monitoring progress

·        teach students how to select appropriate resources for investigating topics

·        teach students to organize and interpret data to draw inferences and synthesize information

·        assist students in selecting appropriate resources to support and present conclusions



1.      Inquiry unit plans and rubrics to grade them.

2.      Evidence of following the template.

3.      Evaluations of websites.

4.      Paper of the components needed for a classroom that facilitates classroom inquiry.

5.  evaluation of the use of technology in the classroom and evaluation of electronic resources that foster student inquiry.


facilitate student use of inquiry and communication processes to convey meaning in content area subject matter. 


·        facilitate student determination of purposes and audiences for communication and investigation

·        teach choice of language elements, media, delivery, and genre, which most effectively shape their print and non-print texts

·        create an environment for authentic inquiry and effective oral, written, and visual discourse



1.      Rubric for various dimensions such as modes of learning, multiple intelligences.

2.      Evidence of differentiation in the lesson plans.

3.      Journal entries and evaluations.


Standards for Knowledge about Communication with Community

All secondary teacher candidates will:



 <<Return to Index


communicate effectively with parents, students, and colleagues about learners’ progress and development in the content area; and


1.      use assessment and reporting practices to foster student growth and achievement

2.      provide effective feedback regarding student performance

·        utilize and convey effective evaluation procedures that include communication, reflection, and goal setting with parents and students

·        communicate expectations to students and their parents


1.      Rubrics to grade the newsletters.

2.      Peer rubric.

3. students reviewed and discussed templates for anecdotal reports for parents regarding homework completion and behavior. Students
discussed computer programs for calculation of marks. Students reviewed
sample Course Syllabi from high school courses.


implement effective strategies to include parents as partners in content literacy development. 


·        foster regular, effective, and appropriate communication with parents


1.      Graded activities

2.      Produce artifacts of literacy activities that occur in various family situations – news articles, family reading materials, letters, etc.

3.      Journal entries listing what they found and how to use that information to plan instruction

4.      Creating a transformed classroom that demonstrates responsiveness to literacy needs of all students.

 <<Return to Index


Lake Superior State University 

School of Education – Crawford Hall

650 W. Easterday Ave.   Sault Sainte Marie , MI   49783

(906) 635-2811  Fax: (906) 635-7565  http://education.lssu.edu