Amanda is currently working to earn a Ph.D. from the University of Kansas. Where she is studying the behavior of fossil birds as interpreted through their footprints and other traces. Amanda recently traveled to South Korea to study Early Cretaceous bird tracks and has published two papers on fossil bird tracks, one in the journal Palaios and one in the Journal of Systematic Paleontology. Next, she will study Early Cretaceous fossil birds and bird tracks in China.
"My experience at Lake State, preparing an Undergraduate Thesis and seeing the project through definitely helped prepare me for graduate school. The interaction between the professors and the students at Lake State is far more similar to the interaction between a graduate student and their graduate advisor than the typical undergraduate student / undergraduate advisor rapport; it's much more personalized. It definitely helped prepare me for grad school."
Amanda Falk '07
Biology, minor in Chemistry
School of Biological Sciences
Originally home to native species of freshwater fish, the
aquarium that calls the Crawford Hall lobby home has recently
undergone extensive remodeling. John Griffioen, an LSSU biology major, recognized the
potential of a fully functioning coral reef system in a
high-traffic area on the University's campus. With the help of generous companies and individuals, students have
raised well over $3,000 in supplies, equipment, and livestock
for this project. Over the course of two semesters, the
existing fish were given new homes, the tank was drained,
thoroughly cleaned, plumbed, and refilled with saltwater, live
rock, and sand. The new system
saw the addition of an overflow, a sump filtration system, and
a new lighting fixture, capable of supporting the corals that
would soon call this aquarium home. Throughout the course of the
next few semesters livestock was added to the system, and
various upgrades and tweaks were made to the plumbing and
The saltwater aquarium is now home to a variety of
organisms. The most popular organisms are likely the mated
pair of ocellaris clownfish that have adopted not one, but two
of the bubble-tip anemones in the tank. The aquarium is also
home to other species of reef fish including wrasses and a
sand-sifiting diamond goby. Additionally, the reef tank
harbors many species of invertebrates. Emerald crabs, cleaner
shrimp, blue-leg hermit crabs, and cerith snails all cruise
the rocks and sand looking to pick up their next meal. Various
soft, small polyp, and large polyp corals also have found a
place on the reef. These corals range from colonial organisms
such as zooanthids, to larger stony corals such as frogspawn,
or the fan-like gorgonian that dominates much of one side.
Although this reef aquarium supports several species of organisims it provides only a hint of what
an actual coral reef looks like. Herein lies the ultimate
purpose of this display, to bring awareness to
the beauty, diversity, and delicacy of coral reef ecosystems.
Coral reefs rival tropical rainforests in biodiversity and
are certainly the most diverse aquatic system in the world.
Reefs harbor 25% of all known marine species and are
unique in their structure and function. The interactions
amongst species and the amazing adaptations found on the reef
are hard to comprehend without a visual example. However, these
incredibly intricate ecosystems are also quite delicate and
are facing destruction. Pollution, improper collection, and
overfishing threaten these complex and beautiful communities.
The future of this saltwater aquarium now lies in the area
of education and awareness. The student organizers of this
project hope to soon display informative signs near the aquarium to raise awareness within the University
community about the complexity and importance of coral reef
ecosystems. Equipment and
livestock changes will be pursued to improve the health and appeal of the system. Currently the project is run almost
exclusively on donations from aquarium companies and generous
community members. If you would like to donate to this
project and further the work of these students, please contact
Lake Superior State University staff member Mary St. Antoine
Generous Contributions Provided:
Richard & Karen Serfass
Moby Dick Pet Store Inc.
In memory of Ray Reilly - Professor Emeritus
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: A compara- tive Study between Spatter for Human and Porcine Blood
The forensic investigation of violent crimes and deaths lead to one of the most significant and frequently encountered types of physical evidence, blood. From the early discoveries and advances in technology, the field of forensics continues to grow, especially in the field of bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA). It is necessary to devise experiments or controlled reproductions to continue the expansion of the BPA field. Human blood can be extremely dangerous due to infectious diseases. There are a few safer alternatives to using human blood and they include using spatter training blood and porcine blood. This study focuses on the comparison between human, porcine, Evident, and Sirchie spatter training blood. The data strongly indicates that while porcine blood is comparable to human blood, Evident and Sirchie spatter training blood is not.