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Approval and acceptance of the Crawford Hall of Science

Chemical Hygiene Plan has been given by the following:

Institutional Representative

Dean, School of Science and Natural Resources

Department Head, Department of Biology

Department Head, Department of Chemistry and Physics

Department Head, Department of Earth Sciences

Chemical Hygiene Officer, Crawford Hall of Science

Chair, Lake Superior State University OSHA committee

Chair, Crawford Hall of Science Safety Committee

Version 1.0 May, 1994, Dr. David Myton Copyright Lake Superior State University















APPENDIX B OSHA STANDARDS SUBPART Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances Hazard Communication Standard

APPENDIX C MIOSHA STANDARD: Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response Plan




Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 


Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 


R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan.
Subrule (1) Where hazardous chemicals as defined by these rules are used in the workplace, an employer shall develop and carry out the provisions of a written chemical hygiene plan that provides for both of the following:
(a) Protecting employees from health hazards that are associated with hazardous chemicals in that laboratory.
(b) Keeping exposures below the limits specified in R 325.70104.

The Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act (MIOSHA) standard: Hazardous Work in Laboratories (R 325.70101 - R 325.70114) extends new protections to employees who are assigned to a laboratory workplace. This standard supersedes all other MIOSHA standards except as provided in the standard and also supersedes the OSHA hazard communication standard 29 C.F.R. 1900.1200. The MIOSHA standard quoted above requires employers to develop a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) to protect workers from hazards in the laboratory. The two broad performance goals for the Crawford Hall of Science Chemical Hygiene Plan can be stated as follows. First, to insure adequate protection of faculty, staff, and students from any hazards associated with the laboratory use chemicals within LSSU laboratories. Second, to keep employee and student exposure to chemicals below MIOSHA specified permissible exposure limits (PEL's).

The LSSU Chemical Hygiene Plan is available to all employees, their representatives, and if necessary, representatives of MIOSHA. It is available to students and student employees, for whom its implementation is mandatory. Indeed, student employment involving the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals is contingent upon following the described safety and environmental guidelines in the plan.

The LSSU Chemical Hygiene Plan for Crawford Hall of Science has been reviewed and approved by the Crawford Hall Safety Committee, University OSHA committee, the dean of the School of Science and Natural Resources, departmental chairs, and the president of the university or their designee. The effectiveness of the chemical hygiene plan will be reviewed and evaluated at least annually and updated as necessary. Discussion of the plan is encouraged, and improvements, proposed changes or questions relating to policy should be directed to the Chemical Hygiene Officer. The Chemical Hygiene Officer, working with the CRW Safety Committee, will reevaluate, revise, and update the plan periodically to reflect new safety information, better safety practices, and greater ease of implementation in accordance with the Laboratory Standard.

The Chemical Hygiene Plan contains eight distinct elements and safety measures specified by the MIOSHA standard. These measures are designed to ensure employee protection in each of the following areas:

[1] Standard Operating Procedures to be used when working with hazardous chemicals
[2] Criteria to be used to determine and implement control measures to reduce exposure to hazardous chemicals
[3] Measures to be taken to ensure that fume hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly
[4] The employee information and training program
[5] Particular operations or procedures that are hazardous enough that prior approval will be required before employees carry them out
[6] A medical examination and consultation policy
[7] Designation of a Chemical Hygiene Officer
[8] Additional provisions for work with "select carcinogens", reproductive toxins, and substances with "high acute toxicity"

Each of these elements are discussed in the eight chapters of this Hygiene Plan. Each chapter begins with an excerpt from the MIOSHA standard Rule 6, Subrule (3) describing the required content.


The chemical hygiene plan, while addressing the specific hygiene practices for the science laboratories at LSSU, draws many general concepts and principles from other sources. These sources included the appendices to the MIOSHA laboratory standard, the Model Chemical Hygiene Plan for Kentucky School Districts, The Chemical Hygiene Plan: Putting It All Together by TnT Partners, Compliance System for Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories by Chemical Communications Systems, Inc, and a working draft of this plan prepared by Dr. Gene Wicks. 

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection: 
(a) Standard operating procedures relevant to safety and health considerations to be followed when laboratory work involves the use of hazardous chemicals.


Standard operating procedures are work practices and policies which have been deemed necessary to protect employees from chemical hazards in the laboratory. While these policies cannot anticipate every possible hazard or situation, they do describe those practices fundamental to good chemical hygiene under most circumstances.

Many of the principles that should be used when working with laboratory chemicals can expressed in four general rules.

(a) Minimize personal exposure to all laboratory chemicals, even to those of no known risk. Since few laboratory chemicals are without hazard, and specific lists for each and every chemical would require many volumes, general guidelines are adopted for all laboratory work. In all cases skin contact, inhalation or ingestion of with laboratory chemicals should be avoided.
(b) Do not underestimate risks. Take special precautions for substances which present special hazards.
(c) Maintain adequate ventilation. The best way to prevent exposure to airborne substances is to provide adequate ventilation, through the use of hoods and other ventilation devices.
(d) Do not exceed the Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL's) established by OSHA, or the Threshold Limit Values (TLV's) set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.


Working With Laboratory Chemicals.

General guidelines for working with laboratory chemicals are found throughout the chemical hygiene plan. Specific guidelines and procedures are also described in later sections of the Chemical Hygiene Plan. Most of these guidelines are simple, "common-sense" safety practices. Identifying potential laboratory hazards, anticipating the consequences, and reducing or eliminating the risks by using appropriate "common-sense" safety precautions is the BEST approach to working with laboratory chemicals.

Selection of Chemicals

Before a chemical substance is selected for use in an operation, process or laboratory experiment, the supervisor or supervising faculty member should review the potential hazards of the substance under the conditions it will be used, and determine whether safer alternatives are available. The conditions in the lab at the time of use should also be considered to assure adequate ventilation, compatibility with other chemicals in use and the relative risk to exposure ratio. Other general approaches include:

(a) Seek information and advice about hazards, plan appropriate protective procedures, and plan positioning of equipment before beginning any new operation.
(b) Prior to obtaining a chemical, review the MSDS for that substance with attention given to the reactivity and health hazard sections, considering specifically how the chemical will be used.
(c) At all times select the chemical with the least toxicity and lowest degree of physical hazard.

Obtaining and Transporting Chemicals

R 325.70109 Subrule (1) With respect to labels and material safety data sheets (MSDS) for hazardous chemicals, both of the following provisions apply:
(a) Employers shall ensure that labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced
(b) Employers shall maintain any MSDS that are received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals and ensure that MSDS are readily accessible to laboratory employees

In accordance with the Federal and Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Acts, Lake Superior State University has established a written hazard communication program. This program is described in the LSSU Procedures Manual in the section entitled Business & Support Operations: Safety, Security and Health - Hazardous Materials Communication. The program identifies the shipping/receiving clerk as responsible for the proper labeling of incoming containers and maintaining the master file of Material Safety Data Sheets. Supervisors or Department heads are responsible for maintaining complete labeling of secondary containers and for maintaining a departmental MSDS file on materials employees will be exposed to in their work. A copy of the LSSU hazard communication program available in the department offices, the complete MIOSHA hazard communication standard is reproduced in Appendix B. The provisions of the Laboratory Standard, 325.70109 as quoted above, are addressed within this procedure. In addition to the content of the Hazardous materials communication, the following precautions and procedures should be observed:

(a) The time and route of chemical transport should be planned to minimize potential for exposure to large numbers of people in the event of an incident
(b) All containers of chemicals should be carried within a second container capable of containing the substance if the first container breaks or leaks. Employees should use a rubber pail or a cardboard box and appropriate cart as necessary.
(c) The total amount transported should be kept small on any single trip (5 gallons is commonly recommended as a maximum quantity)
(d) Only freight elevators should be used to transport chemicals, not stairs.
(e) Gas cylinders must be stored and transported with their caps in place. Large cylinders must be transported using a cylinder cart.

Personal Protective Equipment

Some measure of protection is required for all persons present during the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals. The exact nature and extent of the protection is dependant on what is being used and under what circumstances. Protective equipment includes, but is not limited to, safety glasses, splash goggles, face shields, gloves, aprons, lab coats, and respirators. Refer to Personal Protective Equipment requirements found in Chapter 2 Control Measures.

Location and Equipment to be used for Specific Procedures

Because of the specific hazards associated with some laboratory chemicals and processes, some specific operations should be confined to limited areas in the lab to minimize exposure. Each supervisor or supervising faculty member should identify those processes in their labs requiring special handling and assign those chemicals or processes to the available fume hoods. The following guidelines should also be observed:

(a) Fume hoods should be used for all procedures involving concentrated acids, alkalis and toxic chemicals with PEL's less than 50 ppm.
(b) When using the fume hood, keep chemicals away from the face.
(c) Monitor the operation of the hood and report any problems immediately.
(d) Never use a closed system for carrying out chemical reactions that involve heating or evolution of a gas. Always vent experiments to either a fume hood or to the laboratory.
(e) Use scrubbers to remove toxic chemicals from gaseous waste streams (e.g. a chilled, stirred 5 % sodium hydroxide scrubber for an acidic waste stream).
(f) Check gloves, glove boxes or glove bags for leaks and test for adequate airflow before use.

Personal Hygiene Measures

The key to minimizing personal exposure to hazardous chemicals is the practice of good personal hygiene. In addition to the discussion of good hygiene practices found in Chapter 2, the following guidelines should be emphasized:

(a) Minimize exposure to chemicals via the eyes, skin, nose, and mouth by using appropriate personal protective equipment and ventilation controls including a laboratory fume hood.
(b) Wash hands before eating, drinking, or using gum or tobacco products.
(c) Never eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum or tobacco inside a laboratory.
(d) Never taste or smell chemicals. Do not use mouth suction to pipet chemicals or to start a siphon.

Accident, Spill and Leak Procedures

OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Rule requires all facilities to have a written emergency response plan for those spills that may involve significant risk. A copy of this MIOSHA regulation is included in Appendix C. The response plan should contain provisions for several key elements including the following:
(a) Evacuation for people from the spill area and restriction of access to the area
(b) Notification of proper authorities and individuals who will take charge of the incident
(c) Appropriate containment and control measures
(d) Equipment to be used
(e) Decontamination
The written emergency response plan should include procedures for ventilation failure, evacuation (including alarms for isolation areas), medical care, reporting and drills.

For small to moderately-sized chemical spills of minimal risk in the lab, wear gloves, safety glasses or goggles, proper shoes, and a lab coat or lab apron, and clean up the spill using the clean-up kits provided in the lab. Contain the spilled material for subsequent treatment or disposal. Discard any broken glass into the special lab receptacles provided. Assure the proper disposal of the adsorbent or pillows used in the clean-up process.

Metallic mercury and its compounds are subtle poisons which can be easily absorbed into the body by inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. The chronic effects of mercury inhalation due to metallic mercury lost in the lab are cumulative and not readily reversible. Pools or droplets of metallic mercury should be collected by suction or cleaned up using a designated "mercury-spill cleanup kit." Mercury collected for reclamation should be stored in a high-density polyethylene bottle, and rags, sponges, or other such materials used in cleanup should be placed in a sealed plastic bag, labeled, and disposed of properly.

In the case of accident requiring medical attention or assistance, contact Campus Security immediately to arrange for an escort and any necessary transportation. All accidents must also be reported through the departmental office using the appropriate forms. Copies of the accident and incident forms are to be present in each laboratory and are available in the departmental office. The following guidelines regarding accidents in the laboratory do not replace the need for proper medical consultation and treatment. These guides are general recommendations only, taken from Appendix A of the Laboratory Standard. In the case of eye contact: promptly flush eyes with water for a prolonged period (15 minutes) and seek medical attention. In the case of ingestion: encourage the victim to drink large amounts of water, contact the poison control center if necessary and seek medical attention. In the case of skin contact: promptly flush the affected area with water and remove any contaminated clothing. If symptoms persist after washing, seek medical attention.

Personnel trained in first aid should be available during working hours and an emergency room with medical personnel should be readily available.

The most common injuries in the lab involve broken glass and heat burns. Treat minor burns as needed with antiseptic/antibacterial creams. For small cuts, the affected area should be washed with cold water and a band-aid should be applied. For larger cuts which may require stitches, severe burns, or for instances where chemicals may have been absorbed into the cut, medical attention should be sought. Have someone call the doctor before the injured person leaves the building, and make sure that the person is accompanied by a friend or staff member.

Chemical burns may result when corrosive materials like strong acids, bases, oxidizers, and reducing agents are handled improperly. For chemical splashes, wash the affected area with water for 15 minutes and remove all contaminated clothing. Use the lab shower for spills over large areas of the body. After rinsing thoroughly, seek medical attention.

Chemical Storage

Chemical Classes The primary concerns for chemical storage are minimizing the amounts, avoiding contact between incompatible chemicals and ensuring that hazardous storage conditions (inadequate ventilation, light, heat, etc) are not present. The following guidelines should be used when storing various classes of chemicals:

(a) Flammables, both liquid and solid, should be kept in a locking, fireproof cabinet. If flammables must be stored cold, an "explosion-proof" or "explosion-safe" refrigerator or cold room should be used.
(b) Corrosives should be stored in a cool, dry place separate from all other chemicals. There are four general types of corrosive compounds: acids, bases, oxidizers, and reducing agents. The four different types should be stored separately from one another.
(c) Reactive compounds which cannot be exposed to air or water should be stored separately in appropriate air or water-tight containers respectively. They should be kept in a cool, dry place.
(d) Certain types of reactive compounds should receive special treatment. For example: cyanides, sulfides and sulfites should be stored separately away from acids in a cool, dry place.
(e) Peroxides present a special storage hazard and should be monitored carefully. Diethylether, p-dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, and other commonly used peroxide-forming materials should be labeled with the date the container was first opened, and disposed of within six to twelve months of the opening date.
(f) All other compounds not covered in the above categories should be stored alphabetically in a clean, ventilated stockroom storage area.

General Guidelines The following procedures and guidelines apply to all storage of laboratory chemicals, both for long term storage and for temporary storage in the lab. Quantities present in the lab should be kept to minimums and be limited to only those materials needed for the current procedures.

(a) Stockrooms/storerooms should not be used as preparation or repackaging areas, should be open during normal working hours, and should be controlled by one person.
(b) Do not store chemicals above eye level and do not store them on the floor.
(c) Avoid storing chemicals in fume hoods not designated for storage. If short term storage in fume hoods must take place, insure that the fume hood will be in continuous operation overnight and on weekends.
(d) Store chemicals on lipped shelves which are securely attached to the wall.
(e) Use chemically resistant trays for storage of corrosive liquids and solvents.
(f) Store chemicals away from heat, out of direct sunlight, and away from high traffic areas.
(g) Return chemicals to the stockroom when they are no longer being used for a class experiment or for research.
(h) Store large gas cylinders upright, away from heat sources, and securely chained.
(i) All gas cylinders not in use should be stored with the cap in place.
(j) Passageways, stairways and hallways should not be used as storage areas. Access to exits, emergency equipment and utility controls should never be blocked.

Waste Disposal

The objective of the waste disposal program is to ensure that minimal harm to people, to other organisms, and to the environment will result from the disposal of waste laboratory chemicals. The hazards associated with such waste are present for the individual handling the material, for other occupants of the building who may be downstream from the disposal and for the environment as a whole. For these reasons the disposal of laboratory chemicals to the drain is forbidden without proper chemical evaluation, treatment and/or dilution.

The LSSU Procedures Manual section on Hazardous Waste Disposal provides guidance for the on-site hazardous waste, storage, inventory, labeling, classification and the transport to disposal facilities in compliance with all Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Transportation regulations. The procedures manual, with section: Hazardous Waste Disposal, is available at the departmental offices. The following general guidelines provide additional information about waste handling in the lab.

(a) Whenever feasible, chemicals should be recovered and recycled for reuse in the laboratory. Metals may often be recovered by extraction or precipitation procedures, and solvents may be recovered by distillation.
(b) Return unused reagent chemicals to the Supply room for redistribution.
(c) Treat wastes to make them less hazardous. Many hazardous wastes can be treated to become less hazardous or nonhazardous for disposal purposes. Acids and bases may be neutralized, oxidizing agents may be reduced, strong carcinogens may be oxidized, highly reactive substances may be converted to less reactive substances, and cyanides may be carefully treated with bleach. The treatment process should be done under carefully controlled addition, rate and temperature conditions, and under close supervision.
(d) Consolidation of Wastes. As a general rule, the larger the mass or volume of a waste, the more expensive it is to dispose of the waste. It is more economical to concentrate wastes if this can be done safely. Sometimes a hazardous material will precipitate to form a solid and a nonhazardous liquid upon concentration.
(g) Temporary storage of lab wastes is permitted in accordance with departmental policies. Appendix F describes a chemical compatibility system which may assist employees in determining and assessing the risks of chemical waste handling.

Procedures for Handling Wastes Each faculty member is responsible for the proper handling of the wastes generated in their respective labs. Suitable collection points should be established for all used laboratory chemicals allowing for the segregation of those chemicals by compatibility, type and/or hazard. Where ever possible the used chemicals should be recovered, treated, consolidated or clearly labeled as unrecoverable laboratory wastes. Wastes should be removed from the laboratories to a central waste storage area at least once per week, and from the central waste storage area at regular intervals to long term storage.

Each laboratory should provide suitable containers labeled Used Laboratory Solutions or Student Preparation: (compound name here) to receive materials unsuitable for direct disposal to the drain. Used laboratory chemicals which will be treated, consolidated or in some way handled to reduce the potential hazards shall NOT be labeled as wastes until the hazardous components have been consolidated or removed. Only the portions which are not treatable shall be declared non-recoverable waste. All non-recoverable-waste containers must be labeled with a complete list of contents, the appropriate instructor's name, the course number, the experiment number, and the accumulation period. Such waste containers should have no labels other than the special orange lab waste label.

Some dilute solutions of selected low-toxicity cations and anions may be suitable for disposal into septic drains. The following list, taken from Prudent Practices for Disposal for Chemicals from Laboratories, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1983, may be used to evaluate used laboratory solutions. Compounds whose anion and cation both come from this list are typically suitable for drain disposal with excess water, in quantities up to about 100 g at a time. Strongly acidic or basic compounds should be neutralized before disposal.

Cations Aluminum (III), Calcium (II), Copper (II), Iron (II) and (III), Hydrogen, Potassium, Lithium, Magnesium, Sodium, Ammonium, Tin (II), Strontium (II), Titanium (III) and (VI), Zinc (II), Zirconium (II)  Anions Borate, Tetraborate, Bromide, Carbonate, Chlorate, Chloride, Bisulfite, OCN,- Hydroxide, Iodide, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulfate, Thiocyanate 

Procedures for Lab Operations

In addition to the general procedures discussed above, each specific laboratory operation that involves significant hazards should have its own standard operating procedure developed. These procedures must be developed in a manner appropriate to the circumstances around such use. Procedures may differ for use of the same material in different settings and when used in different quantities. Guidelines illustrated here apply to normally hazardous materials, other sections of the CHP apply to extremely hazardous chemicals or special measures. Each supervisor or supervising faculty member should develop similar procedures for the safe handling of hazardous laboratory chemicals used within the context of their respective laboratories. Two sample procedures are provided below.

(a) Pouring, mixing or reacting significant volumes (greater than 10 mL) of severely irritating or corrosive chemicals:
[1] Goggles or face shield, gloves and lab coat must be worn
[2] The operation should be carried out under the hood or in the sink
[3] At least one other person must be in the lab at the time

(b) Use of volatile toxic chemicals:
[1] All such chemicals will be handled under the hood
[2] Hood operation will be checked before beginning the procedure
[3] Employees will wash hands after handling
[4] Any symptoms or accidental over-exposure must be reported

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(b) Criteria that the employer will use to determine and implement control measures to reduce employee exposure to hazardous chemicals, including engineering controls, the use of personal protective equipment, and hygiene practices. Particular attention shall be given to the selection of control measures for chemicals that are known to be particularly hazardous.


Control measures must be used when personal safety issues or health hazards are present. This chapter examines when and what types of protective control measures should be used. Protective apparel must be compatible with the required degree of protection for the substances being handled. There must be easily accessible drench-type safety showers, eyewash fountains, and fire extinguishers for each lab. Available in or near each lab should be fire alarms and telephones for emergency use, and any other items designated by the laboratory supervisor or supervising faculty. Harmful chemicals can inadvertently be introduced into the body by four general routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, and injection (i.e. chemicals entering the body though cuts or skin punctures). There are three strategies to prevent exposure or to reduce harm in the event of exposure. Each of these strategies is introduced and discussed in the three subsequent sections of this chapter.

Engineering Controls include approaches to reduce contact to hazardous materials through physical barriers, ventilation and equipment. Adequate ventilation is extremely important in experiments involving hazardous compounds, corrosive, flammable, or potentially explosive compounds. Such experiments should always be done inside a fume hood. Potentially explosive reactions should be done behind a lab shield. Compounds that are highly reactive toward air and water should be handled using proper syringe technique, in a dry box, or in a glove bag contained inside a fume hood.

Personal protective equipment, properly used, can prevent significant exposure to chemicals. Safety glasses and proper footwear may required in any LSSU laboratory based on the procedures in use. Gloves are mandatory protection from compounds that are infectious, toxic or corrosive. In addition, a lab apron or lab coat should be worn when working with relatively large amounts of these materials. If a pressure buildup or implosion is possible due to a chemical reaction or other laboratory operation such as vacuum distillations, a face shield should be worn as well.

Good personal hygiene practices are the third strategy to reduce chemical exposure in the laboratory. Unnecessary contact with chemicals should be avoided. Washing the hands or exposed skin frequently is a good practice, and bathing after significant exposure or at the end of a workday is recommended. In the event of an accident, contaminated clothing should be removed immediately and fresh clothing should be worn.


Engineering controls include those physical accommodations within the laboratory facility designed to ensure and protect the health and safety of employees. These include the ventilation system, and the laboratory safety equipment. Routine laboratory safety equipment, such as fire extinguishers, fire blankets, eyewash stations, safety showers, and spill control kits are all important control devices to minimize personal harm and to prevent an accident from getting out of control.


Proper ventilation is essential to the safe operation of laboratories. Each laboratory must have an appropriate general ventilation system with air intakes and exhausts located so as to avoid intake of contaminated air. There must be adequate, well ventilated stockrooms and storerooms. Laboratories should be at negative pressure relative to the halls and surrounding classrooms so that contaminated air is not drawn out of the laboratory. All chemical hygiene related equipment and systems should undergo continuing appraisal and modifications when necessary. Furthermore the work conducted and its scale must be appropriate to the physical facilities available, and especially to the quality of the ventilation. Chapter 3 of this chemical hygiene plan is devoted to the proper functioning and operational performance of laboratory hoods and other protective equipment.

Laboratory Safety Equipment

Fume Hoods Laboratory type fume hoods are extremely important in providing adequate ventilation when working with hazardous compounds in the laboratory. They are to be present in all laboratories in Crawford Hall where hazardous chemicals are handled. The fume hoods are to be inspected periodically to insure adequate face velocities, and any necessary maintenance should be requested promptly. Chapter 3 describes the plan to ensure proper and adequate operation of fume hoods and other protective equipment.

Portable Chemical Shields A Portable chemical shield is available it should be used whenever there is the potential for a chemical explosion or glass breakage due to high pressure or vacuum inside a vessel. The experimental apparatus and entire chemical shield should be used inside a laboratory hood if possible.

Fire extinguishers Fire extinguishers are to be available in or near each laboratory. Four general fire classes exist with a different type of fire extinguisher appropriate for use on each class. Table 2-1 shows the four general classes of fire, the types of fuel present in each class, and the types of fire extinguishers that can be safely used to put the corresponding fire out.

With regard to the information in Table 2-1, there are a few cautionary notes. Water-based extinguishers are useful only for Class A fires and should not be used for extinguishing fires of any other type. Aqueous film-forming foam extinguishers (AFFF) conduct electricity and should not be used on Class C fires. Using multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers in a confined area may produce a cloud that reduces visibility. Also, halon 1211 may be toxic if inhaled (at >4 % halon/unit air volume) and can decompose to give dangerous by products at 900F (480C). It is also important to note that carbon dioxide fire extinguishers may cause frostbite, and suffocation is possible if they are used in a confined area. Carbon dioxide extinguishers with a metal discharge horn will also conduct electricity and should never be used on a Class C fire. Finally, a Class ABC rated fire extinguisher should NEVER be used on a Class D fire since it may make the fire worse. Class D fires should be smothered with sand or a Class D fire extinguisher

Fire Blankets Fire blankets should be provided in all Crawford Hall laboratories where flammable compounds may be used for instructional and/or research purposes.

Emergency Eyewash Stations Eyewash stations should be checked bimonthly to make sure that they are working properly; any required maintenance is to be performed promptly. Eyewash stations should be present or immediately available in all Crawford Hall laboratories, storerooms, or stockrooms where hazardous chemicals are handled or stored. Prominent signs should identify the presence and location of this and other safety and first aid equipment in the lab.

General Classes of Fires and Fire Extinguishers
Class Fuel Source (examples) Appropriate Fire Extinguisher Type
Ordinary Combustibles: (wood, paper, rubber, natural fibers, some plastics)
Water based; Aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF); Multipurpose dry chemical; Halon 1211
Flammable Liquids: (Flammable liquids and gases, greases, tars, oil-base paints, and other volatile liquids)
Carbon dioxide; Dry chemical; Halon 1211; Multipurpose dry chemical; Film-forming foam (AFFF)
Electrical: (energized electrical wiring or electrical equipment) Dry chemical; Halon; Multipurpose dry chemical; Carbon dioxide without a metal discharge horn

Combustible Metals: (solid sodium metal or lithium metal)
Specialized class D; Do NOT use an ABC type fire extinguisher
This information was obtained from Gold, David T., Fire Brigade Training Manual, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 1982, pp. 58-71. 

Emergency Safety Showers An easily accessible drench-type safety shower or drench hose should be present wherever hazardous chemicals are stored or used. Prominent location signs should identify the presence and location of this and other safety and first aid equipment in the lab. The proper operation of safety showers should be checked every 3 to 6 months, and prompt maintenance provided if necessary.

Spill Control Supplies Spill control equipment should be present in each laboratory, stockroom, and storeroom where significant quantities of hazardous chemicals are stored or used. A basic spill kit should include Hazorb spill control pillows, acid neutralizing powder, caustic (base) neutralizing powder, a solvent adsorbent, a brush, and a dustpan. Additional or specialized spill materials may be required for the specific processes or needs of individual laboratories, as determined by the department head or supervising faculty. A mercury spill cleanup kit is available in the chemistry stockroom and special attention must be given to the complete and proper cleanup of mercury spills.

Signs and Labels Prominent signs and labels of the following types should be posted: emergency telephone numbers; identity labels showing the contents of containers not in immediate use by a worker,and the associated hazards; location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits, and areas where food and beverage consumption and storage is permitted/prohibited; warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist. Specific examples of signs and labels concerning chemically-related safety, health, and environmental issues in Crawford Hall are given below.

  1. A laboratory authority list must be on the door of each lab showing the faculty member(s) who use the lab as well as a phone number where each can be reached.
  2. In the event of a fire, accident, flood, or hazardous chemical spill, a faculty member must be contacted.
  3. A laboratory's specific safety policies must be posted inside the lab for all students to read and consult.
  4. Location signs for safety equipment and/or spill cleanup equipment must be present.
  5. Hazard warning signs must be posted in appropriate areas where flammable materials, biological hazards, or other potentially hazardous materials may be present.
  6. All laboratory chemical containers should have appropriate labels. Student unknowns should be labeled in accordance with departmental policy.
  7. The date that all peroxidizable compounds like ethyl ether, p-dioxane, and tetrahydrofuran are opened, and their expiration date, should be written on the respective labels.
  8. Chemical solutions that are prepared for a class should reflect the contents, the course number, and the date on the label.
  9. All used chemical containers and unrecoverable waste containers must be labeled with a complete list of contents, the appropriate instructor's name, the course number, the experiment number, and the accumulation period.
  10. LSSU chemical waste containers should have no labels other than the special orange lab waste label.


Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a term used to describe variety of products worn by laboratory workers designed to protect those workers from safety and health hazards. Protective equipment is required anytime there is a possibility that the worker may be exposed to a hazardous chemical. The level of protection required depends on the specific hazards involved and the quantities of materials handled. There are clear limitations to all types of PPE. Such limitations must be considered when selecting equipment for any given task. Limiting factors for PPE protection include: proper fit and selection; comfort vs. protection; restrictions to sight, hearing, touch, and movement; proper maintenance; equipment lifetimes. All personal protective equipment should be examined before use to ensure the equipment will be able to provide the needed level of safety. The following sections discuss some types of PPE, each supervisor or supervising faculty must assess the operations within their own labs and determine the types and levels of protection required for the assigned tasks.

Eye Protection
Proper eye protection should be worn at all times in laboratories where people may come in contact with hazardous chemicals. Eye protection may be required in all laboratories (Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Physics) depending on the specific operations performed. Supervisors and supervising faculty must assess the operation and require a level of eye protection appropriate to the assigned task. Some general considerations regarding the choice of eye protection include the following. Contact lenses are NOT appropriate in cases where hazardous chemicals may contact the eye, indeed contacts may actually increase the chance of injury if a chemical splash into the eye takes place. Prescription eyeware offers little to no protection against chemical splash or impact resistance to flying particles unless they are ANSI Z87.1 rated. Visitor type glasses do not provide sufficient protection against chemical splashes and should not be used when handling hazardous chemicals and solutions which may be splashed. Indirectly vented chemical splash goggles should be used when handling concentrated reagents or hazardous materials. Full face shields should be used when working with systems under pressure. In all cases select a level of eye protection with ensures adequate protection for the tasks assigned.

Hand Protection

Proper hand protection is very important when working with toxic, corrosive, or flammable materials. Since the physical properties of hazardous compounds vary, there have been several different types of glove materials developed to work with different compounds. Table 2.2 gives some common examples of proper glove materials for use with acids, bases, and solvents. Wear appropriate gloves when the potential exists for contact with toxic materials, materials that may cause irritation, allergic sensitization or skin absorption. Consult the MSDS for the chemical to ensure that the type of glove material used is protective for the substance.

Latex gloves can be used safely for handling many solids and for handling dilute aqueous solutions of many inorganic materials. Latex gloves are quite popular due to their flexibility, it is easier to manipulate lab equipment while wearing them, and they may seem more comfortable. Latex gloves are, however, the poorest protection of any of the glove materials discussed for use with acids, bases, and organic solvents. This is well known from "breakthrough studies" where the average time of chemical breakthrough for glove materials is determined with respect to a given compound.

While it is mandatory that all students and employees have proper hand protection when working with potentially hazardous materials, it is also recognized that certain common laboratory operations can be performed safely without gloves. Should contamination occur, the hands can be washed in the sink with soap and water.

Supervisors and supervising faculty should determine the type of gloves and level of protection required for the assigned laboratory tasks. Adequate glove protection should be made available as necessary. Before each use, inspect gloves carefully for discoloration, punctures, and tears. Discard them when they become contaminated or damaged.

Foot Protection

Adequate protection for employee feet includes a prohibition against open-toed shoes (e.g. sandals, tongs, bare feet) in the laboratory. This guards against foot injury due to glass breakage or accidental chemical spills. Furthermore canvas or cloth shoes which may absorb any material spilled on them should be discouraged.


Chemical compatibility and breakthrough time test data are available from glove suppliers (for example Lab Safety Supply January 97 catalog 7A p288).  Breakthrough times are based on controlled conditions, users are advised to conduct their own backup tests to confirm suitability for the application desired.

Protective Clothing

A lab coat or lab apron should be used when working with potentially toxic, corrosive, or flammable compounds that may inadvertently be splashed onto clothing. It is much less expensive to buy a lab apron than it is to replace expensive jeans, shirts, blouses, or other street clothing. Chemical suits are routinely worn in industry and in environmental cleanup situations where a large amount of uncontained hazardous material may be present.

A face shield should be used in conjunction with a fume hood or a laboratory safety shield when working with substances that may react violently or create pressure.


Personal hygiene practices are direct and easily implemented methods to reduce exposure to hazardous materials. In addition to those practices discussed in other sections of the CHP, hygiene practices may include the following:

  1. Use a properly operating fume hood to vent gases or to work with potentially hazardous or noxious materials.
  2. Never taste or smell chemicals in the laboratory.
  3. Do not use mouth suction to pipet chemicals or to start a siphon; use a pipetting device or aspirator to create a vacuum.
  4. Wash the hands and arms thoroughly before leaving the laboratory, even if gloves have been worn.
  5. Take a bath after work or after lab if clothes have been inadvertently contaminated. Note: In the event of an accident, contaminated clothing should be removed immediately and fresh clothing should be worn.
  6. Wash contaminated clothing separately from other clothing items.
  7. Never eat, drink, smoke, or chew tobacco or gum inside a laboratory, and do not store food or beverages meant for consumption in lab refrigerators.
  8. Avoid working alone in the laboratory if you are working with hazardous materials or doing potentially hazardous work.
  9. Keep lab spaces, including fume hoods, clean and uncluttered to prevent accidental spills and glass breakage.
  10. Avoid practical jokes or other behavior which might confuse, startle, or distract another worker.
  11. Follow proper handling procedures for biological specimens and infectious wastes.
  12. Dispose of broken glass only in approved containers, not the regular trash.
  13. Always be alert to unsafe conditions or actions and correct them immediately. Remember that someone else's accident can be as dangerous to you as any YOU might have.
  14. Minimize exposure to chemicals via the eyes, skin, nose, and mouth by using appropriate personal protective equipment and ventilation controls, including a laboratory fume hood.

Safety Planning for New Experiments

The approach used for safety planning of new experiments in academic laboratories should be the same as that used by safety planners in industry. When designing a new experiment, search for potential hazards in each of three major areas--the physical properties of the chemicals, the experimental procedure, and the manipulation of the equipment. Also consider what may happen if equipment breaks down, the electricity is shut off, the water is shut off, a fire occurs, or you are burned by a corrosive chemical. Evaluate the probability of a potential hazard happening and the severity of its consequences. Then attempt to reduce the risks by one or both of the following approaches: by reducing the probability that a given hazard might happen or by reducing the severity of the consequences if it really does happen.

Unattended Laboratory Experiments

Unattended laboratory experiments are permitted only if the supervisor or supervising faculty in charge of a project knows and approves of the unattended operation. In such a case, the experiment should be well secured and some thought must be given to anything that might go wrong during the experimentor's absence. Before leaving, the experimentor should affix a sign on or near the experiment giving his/her name and telephone number, the date, the time, the chemical reaction or chemicals involved in the experiment, and the advisor's name (if applicable). If anything goes wrong with the experiment or if anyone has any questions about it, the experimenter or his/her advisor (if any) should be contacted.


Lab instructional and research areas, storage rooms, and preparation rooms should be kept clean and free from obstructions. There should not be any chemicals or any glassware cluttering the benches nor should carts and chairs block the aisles. Likewise, the fume hoods should have neither chemicals nor glassware cluttering them, and the hoods should be used only in accordance with the designated purposes. Once chemicals and equipment are no longer in use, they should be returned to their proper storage area. Equipment should be cleaned before being returned to the stockroom.

Chemical wastes should be disposed of properly as described previously in the CHP. Contents of unlabelled or improperly labelled containers should be disposed of promptly. Stairways and hallways should never be used to store chemicals and equipment even for short periods of time, and instructional laboratories should not be used for extended storage of equipment that no longer works.

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(c) A requirement that laboratory-type hoods and other protective equipment are functioning properly and the specific measures that shall be taken to ensure the proper and adequate performance of such equipment.


The fume hood is probably the single most important equipment used to control employee exposure to hazardous chemicals in a laboratory. Fume hoods occupy a central position within the plan to control employee exposures. Laboratory fume hoods require regular monitoring, inspections, and maintenance to ensure proper and adequate performance. The level of performance for any given hood is dependant on the type of operations performed within the hood. In general however the minimum face velocity of hoods should be monitored and work within the hood kept a safe distance behind the face. Other equipment, such as glove boxes, isolation/incubation rooms, and freezers must also be included in a program of regular inspection and maintenance.


A system of general ventilation must be provided for the laboratory. This system should provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices. This system should not be relied on for protection against toxic substances released into the laboratory. The system should ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced, preventing increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day. This system should direct the air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building. Exaust outlets for vented air should be located at a site remote from any fresh air intake for the building. Such a system will leave the laboratories at a relative negative pressure when compared to the hallways. Ventilated storage cabinets, canopy hoods, etc. should be provided as needed, each with a separate exhaust duct. Modifications to the ventilation system should be made only if thorough testing indicates worker protection from airborne toxic substances will continue to be adequate.

The performance of the general ventilation system should maintain 4-12 room air changes per hour, if local exhaust systems such as hoods are used as the primary method of control. If this is the case the hoods must be left in operation whenever the lab is in use. The air flow should not be turbulent and should be relatively uniform throughout the laboratory. Air flow into and within the hood should not be excessively turbulent, and hood face velocities should be adequate (typically 60-100 linear feet per minute). The quality and quantity of the ventilation should be regularly monitored and evaluated (at least every 3 months), and reevaluated whenever a change in the local ventilation devices is made.


The specific ventilation capacity of each laboratory type fume hood is dependent on the operations carried out in the hood and the hazards associated with the substances handled. In general, a laboratory hood with 2.5 linear feet of hood space per person should be provided for every two workers if they spend most of their time working with chemicals, and each hood should have a continuous monitoring device to allow convenient confirmation of adequate hood performance before use. If there are not enough of the proper types of hoods in the lab for the operations assigned, or the performance of the hoods and/or ventilation system are not adequate for those operations, then those operations must be restricted or additional hood capacity acquired.

Regular inspection and monitoring of laboratory fume hoods is essential to ensure their proper and adequate performance. Contained within Appendix D is the hood inspection checklist. Key points within the checklist include: the method of measurement; minimum standards for performance; frequency of inspection; communication within the university; hood condition and location; frequency and type of use; and the presence of other control measures (glove boxes, isolation rooms, etc.) The records and reports generated through the inspection program should be maintained by the chemical hygiene officer with the Crawford Hall of Science Safety Committee.

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(d) Provisions for employee information and training as prescribed in R 325.70107.


A regular and ongoing employee information and training program is an essential component of the universities efforts to ensure the health and safety of its employees. This chapter of the Chemical Hygiene Plan describes our program to provide this information and training, the content of that program, and employee records related to the program.

R 325.70107
Subrule (1) An employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of and understand the hazards of chemicals present in their work areas.
Subrule (2) Such information shall be provided at the time of an employee's initial assignment to a work area where hazardous chemicals are present and before assignments that involve new exposure situations. Refresher information and training shall be provided by the employer to ensure that an employee is aware of the risks of exposure to hazardous chemicals.


The Laboratory Standard describes five mandatory topics of instruction within the category of employee information. The informational content required by the Standard is met at LSSU through a written communication, with the necessary information summarized in Table 4.1. Table 4.1 shall be provided to all employees at the time of initial hire and made available during all ongoing training activities. The mandatory topics to be included in employee information include the following:


The employee training program is comprised of classroom type instruction and is mandated to address three key topics. The employee training program must include:

The training program must also train the employee in the applicable details of this written chemical hygiene plan. An outline of the employee training program is provided in Appendix E, listing the key points which are covered in the training. Records of employee training, attendance logs, and other relevant notes are to be maintained by the CRW Safety Committee.

TABLE 4.1 

The following table contains mandatory information related to employee health and safety. This information is to be made available to all employees upon initial hire an during all subsequent training opportunities.

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(e) The circumstances under which a particular laboratory operation, procedure, or activity shall require prior approval from the employer or the employer's designee before implementation.


There may be a limited number of procedures in laboratories that are significantly more hazardous than all of the other activities of the lab. High hazard activities always should be performed by an individual well acquainted with all of the safety policies and a thorough understanding of the nature of the hazards.


There are three factors to consider in deciding whether or not to require pre-approval of an operation. These factors include the potential hazard of the operation, the dependability and level of safety awareness of the employee, and finally what preventative measures are possible and the extent to which a pre-approval policy will enhance their use.

Each supervisor and supervising faculty should consider the operations undertaken within their respective laboratory settings and assess whether a pre-approval policy may be needed. In doing so one should consider the worst-case scenario should the operation be performed in the most inappropriate manner possible. For example, what are the key elements in carrying out the procedure safely, and will pre-approval promote safe practices? Are the employees involved in the operation significantly less familiar with the hazards, their causes, or the logistical operation of the lab than the senior person who would give oversight and approval? Finally, how frequently is the operation performed and what is the availability of the supervisor to provide approval?

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(f) Provisions for medical consultation and medical examinations in accordance with R 325.70108.


The MIOSHA Laboratory Standard rules require that employers make available to employees the opportunity to receive medical evaluation in cases where there is some reason to believe that the employee has been affected by exposure to a hazardous chemical. The Standard, reprinted in Appendix A, describes the provisions for medical consultation and examination. Excerpts from several relevant sections of the Standard are included below. The complete text should be consulted for additional information. The LSSU employee relations office should be contacted directly by the employee to arrange for medical evaluation. Such evaluations are to be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place. R 325.70104 For laboratory uses of MIOSHA-regulated substances, an employer shall assure that the laboratory employees' exposures to such substances to not exceed the permissible exposure limits specified in MIOSHA occupational health standards R 325.70105 Subrule (1) An employer shall measure an employee's exposure to any substance that is regulated by a standard which requires monitoring if there is reason to believe that exposure levels for that substance routinely exceed the action level or, in the absence of an action level, the permissible exposure limits (PEL). R 325.70108 Subrule (1) An employer shall provide all employees who work with hazardous chemicals an opportunity to receive the following medical attention, including any follow-up examinations which the examining physician determines to be necessary: (a) When an employee develops signs or symptoms that are associated with hazardous chemicals . . . (b) If exposure monitoring reveals an exposure level that is routinely above the action level . . . (c) When an event takes place in the work areas . . . that results in the likelihood of a hazardous exposure . . .

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(g) Designation of personnel who are responsible for implementing the chemical hygiene plan, including the assignment of a chemical hygiene officer and, if appropriate, establishment of a chemical hygiene committee.


Responsibility for chemical hygiene and laboratory safety within LSSU laboratories rests upon all members of the university community. The safety of any one individual is vitally linked to the safe practices of the other members of the lab. As recommended in, and taken from, the appendices to the MIOSHA standard, section B, the following paragraphs outline the responsibilities and obligations of the university community as related to the standard.


Responsibility for chemical hygiene rests at all levels of the university, including those listed below:

Chief Executive Officer, who has ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene within the institution and must, with other administrators, provide continuing support for institutional chemical hygiene.

Supervisor of the Department, or other administrative unit, who is responsible for chemical hygiene in that unit.

Chemical Hygiene Officer, whose appointment is essential and who must: (a) work with administrators and other employees to develop and implement appropriate chemical hygiene policies and practices; (b) monitor procurement, use and disposal of chemicals used in the lab; (c) see that appropriate audits are maintained; (d) help supervisors and supervising faculty develop precautions and adequate facilities; (e) know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances; and (f) seek ways to improve the chemical hygiene program.

Laboratory Supervisors and Supervising Faculty, who have overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in the laboratory including responsibility to: (a) ensure that workers know and follow the chemical hygiene rules, that protective equipment is available and in working order, and that appropriate training has been provided; (b) provide regular, formal chemical hygiene and housekeeping inspections including routine inspections of emergency equipment; (c) know the current legal requirements concerning regulated substances; (d) determine the required levels of protective apparel and equipment; and (e) ensure that facilities and training for use of any material being ordered are adequate.

Laboratory Worker, who is responsible for: (a) planning and conducting each operation in accordance with the institutional chemical hygiene procedures; and (b) developing good personal chemical hygiene habits.

Crawford Hall Safety Committee
The Safety Committee shall consist of the Chemical Hygiene Officer and at least four faculty and/or staff members from within Crawford Hall representing each academic discipline involved in the laboratory use of hazardous chemicals. The committee is expected to carry out the following duties with regard to the Chemical Hygiene Plan:

  1. Assist the Chemical Hygiene Officer in periodic inspections for safety hazards and properly functioning safety equipment in Crawford Hall laboratories.
  2. Schedule periodic laboratory safety seminars for all work-study students, faculty staff and interested students.
  3. Assist the Chemical Hygiene Officer in reevaluating, improving, and updating the Chemical Hygiene Plan.
  4. Assist faculty members in obtaining the proper protective equipment needed for instructional and/or research use.
  5. Assist the department chairpersons in evaluating lab safety improvements and lab safety equipment.
  6. Develop and update the inventory used in the chemical tracking process.
  7. Maintain current records for safety inspections and for safety equipment (e.g. fume hood performance).

Laboratory Inspections

Comprehensive laboratory inspections will be done on a yearly basis while less rigorous inspections will be performed quarterly. The Crawford Hall Safety Committee will participate in the comprehensive safety and housekeeping inspections, while the quarterly inspections will be performed by the Chemical Hygiene Officer. The LSSU Laboratory Inspection form is included in Appendix D. Included in the regular inspections are the following items:

  1. Check the fire extinguishers.
  2. Record the fume hood ventilation flow in fpm.
  3. Inspect safety equipment (e.g. safety shower, eyewash, spill control equipment).
  4. Evaluate housekeeping practices.
    1. Spot check for safe chemical handling.

Formal records of the laboratory inspections will be kept on file as a part to the chemical hygiene plan by the CRW Safety committee.

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 



R 325.70106 Chemical Hygiene Plan
Subrule (3) The chemical hygiene plan shall include each of the following elements and shall indicate specific measures that the employer will take to ensure laboratory employee protection:
(h) Provisions for additional employee protection for work with particularly hazardous substances, such as select carcinogens, reproductive toxins, and substances that have a high degree of acute or chronic toxicity.


As described in the above MIOSHA rule there are three classes of compounds which must receive special consideration. Each of the three classes are defined by different criteria, described in the sections to follow.

Class 1: Select Carcinogens

Select carcinogens are defined as those substances that meet any of the following four criteria. The chemicals specified by these criteria are subject to expansion and revision.

OSHA-regulated carcinogens The following substances are specifically designated as carcinogens and OSHA has written standards for these materials. Changes to this list can be identified through the local OSHA office or from the current Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR 1910.1000). The following substances are OSHA-regulated carcinogens: Asbestos, Benzidine, Inorganic arsenic,
2,4-Nitrobiphenyl, 4-Aminodiphenyl, Benzene,
a-Napthylamine, Ethyleneimine,
Coke oven emissions, Methyl chloromethyl ether,
beta-Propioactone, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane,
3',3'-Dichlorobenzidine, 2-Acetylaminofluorene, Acrylonitrile (and its salts), 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Ethylene oxide, bis-Chloromethyl ether, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, beta-Napthylamine, Vinyl chloride

National Toxicology Program (NTP) All the chemicals listed in the "Annual Report on Carcinogens" published by the National Toxicology Program as "known to be carcinogens". This list is reprinted in Appendix G.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) All the chemicals listed in the publication "International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs" under the list titled: "Group 1 - Carcinogenic to Humans". This list is reprinted in Appendix G.

Other Lists Chemicals that appear in the aforementioned NTP document on the list headed "reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens", or in the aforementioned IARC document on the lists headed 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) and 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and also meet the following criteria:
"Causes a statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria:
a. After inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a significant portion of a lifetime to levels of less than 10mg/m3
b. After repeated skin application of less than 300mg/kg of body weight per week; or
c. After oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day
Both of these lists are reprinted in Appendix G.

Class 2: Reproductive Toxins

OSHA defines these chemicals as substances which affect reproductive capabilities including chromosomal damage (mutations), and effects on fetuses (teratogenesis). Employers and employees may be aware of this potential through inspection of the MSDS for the substances in use in the laboratory.

Class 3: High Acute Toxicity Compounds

The Hazard Communication Standard, is used by OSHA to define those compounds with high acute toxicity, uses the following criteria:

a. median LD 50 of 50 mg/kg orally in albino rats weighing 200-300 grams
b. median LD 50 of 200 mg/kg by continuous contact for 24 hours with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between two and three kilograms
c. median LC 50 in air of 200 ppm (or 2 mg/liter) continuous inhalation for one hour

All three classes of compounds described above fall into the single category in the laboratory standard: particularly hazardous substances. For any such chemical, when it is used in a lab, the employer must make provisions for additional protection where appropriate, to include special operational procedures. Supervisors or supervising faculty whose laboratory operations include the use of particularly hazardous substances must follow the guidelines described below for special operational procedures.


Designated Work Areas

R 325.70106 Subrule (3) Part (h) Specific consideration shall be given to the following provisions, which shall be included where appropriate:
(i) The establishment of a designated area or areas that indicate the physical limits of exposure to particularly hazardous substances

Containment Devices

R 325.70106 Subrule (3) Part (h) Specific consideration shall be given to the following provisions, which shall be included where appropriate:
(ii) The use of containment devices, such as laboratory-type hoods or glove boxes.

Handling of Hazardous Waste

R 325.70106 Subrule (3) Part (h) Specific consideration shall be given to the following provisions, which shall be included where appropriate:
(iii) Procedures for the safe removal of contaminated waste.

Decontamination Procedures

R 325.70106 Subrule (3) Part (h) Specific consideration shall be given to the following provisions, which shall be included where appropriate:
(iv) Decontamination procedures.

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 


Mahn, William J., Academic Laboratory Chemical Hazards Guidebook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, pp. 1-77.

Prudent Practices for Disposal of Hazardous Chemicals from Laboratories, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1983, p. 133.

Gold, David T., Fire Brigade Training Manual, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 1982, pp. 58-71.

Smith, Warren, ed., Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1990, pp. 1-67.  

Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 


MIOSHA STANDARD: Hazardous Work in Laboratories


Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 


OSHA STANDARDS SUBPART Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances Hazard Communication Standard


Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 


MIOSHA STANDARD: Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response Plan


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LABORATORY INSPECTION Room Number __________________
LSSU Crawford Science Hall Inspection Date __________________

Rate each item according to the following scheme:
1. Satisfactory (readily accessible, clearly visible, good condition, not applicable to this lab)
2. Unsatisfactory (not readily accessible, needs attention, poor condition)
3. Poses imminent health / safety risk

1 2 3 General Comments:

Housekeeping, general cleanliness
Aisles not cluttered, egress paths free of obstructions
Laboratory authority list on door
Discipline specific laboratory safety policies posted
Appropriate hazard and warning signs posted
Location signs for safety/emergency equipment
Food not stored in laboratory refrigerators, food warnings on door
Condition of equipment, general facilities, lab hoods
Emergency phone numbers posted, access to emergency phone

Fire Safety

Fire extinguisher(s) accessible, fully charged
Fire blanket(s) accessible
Flammables maintained at minimal levels in laboratory
Stored flammables are in flammable material storage cabinets
Flammables not stored along egress path
Flammables stored in explosion-proof refrigerators or cold room

Other Safety Devices

Emergency eyewash fountain
Emergency deluge shower
Emergency first aid supplies
Protective equipment (goggles, face masks, gloves, aprons, etc.)
Evacuation route marked
Master utility cutoffs (check if present) Gas Water
Smoke Detector (storage areas)

Chemical Handling

Stored chemicals organized according to compatibility
Ethers identified by date of receipt and latest date for disposal
All chemical containers clearly labeled with contents
Only chemicals for current experiments accessible to students
Chemicals stored at safe levels, in cabinets or on stable shelving
Containers present for used chemicals, and wastes
Chemical wastes labeled properly and segregated prior to disposal
Gas cylinders strapped firmly in place, stored cylinders capped
Work generating toxic and hazardous fumes done in hoods
Vessels used under vacuum are taped or of appropriate construction


Laboratory at negative pressure with respect to corridors
Hoods located in low-traffic, draft-free areas
Hood face velocity (60-100 fpm) ___________ sash height _________
Low-velocity warning alarms on hoods
Fume-generating apparatus at least 20 cm behind face of hoods
Fume hoods used for designated purposes
Hoods suitable for frequency and type of use required


All electrical circuits grounded
No circuits overloaded
Circuit breakers properly labeled
Electrical apparatus grounded or double insulated
Motors in labs with flammable vapors are nonsparking
Lighting adequate, lights in hoods protected from vapors


cc: Departmental Chairs

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Table of Contents Lake Superior State University 












Table of Contents Lake Superior State University