Table 1 - Clinical Signs of Disease in Animals SIGN POSSIBLE ETIOLOGY ADDITIONAL SIGNS Alopecia - hair loss Skin disorder, parasite, Patches of hair missing, sparse barbering, fighting hair coat Anemia - low red blood cell White or ashen colored skin, count; pale skin & mucous Excessive blood loss loss of eye brightness or color membranes depth Anorexia - decreased food Water deprivation, pathogenic Food hopper stays full, little or consumption disease, pain no feces production, weight loss Bleeding External or internal injury Blood on animal or cage walls or floor Circling or head tilt Ear infection, ear mites Animal holds head to one side or walks in circles Constipation - little or no Deprivation of food or water, evacuation of waste from hair ingestion, various Little or no feces production, bowels infections anorexia Cough Infection or abnormality of Sound of air forced out of throat or lung animal’s mouth somtimes with grunt Dehydration - excessive Water deprivation, diarrhea, Loss of skin elasticity, eyes water loss various illnesses sunken in sockets Diarrhea - loose or watery Feces more pasty or fluid than feces Various stresses & illnesses usual, staining under tail and around anus Discharge - production of Various infections & Colored or clear secretion fluid substances from body pathogenic diseases around eyes, nose, ears, orifices rectum, vagina, or penis Dyspnea - labored or rapid Various Gasping breathing Lethargic - sluggishness; Various Relectance to move lack of alertness Paralysis - inability to move Nerve damage or CNS Dragging limb or portion of the all or part of the body disease body Prolapse - internal organ Straining during elimination Tissue protruding from rectum protrudes through a body of feces or giving birth or genetalia opening Scratching Skin irritation due to dryness, Hair loss, dry/scaly or parasites, various diseases reddened/moist skin or infections Ruffled hair coat Vitamin defficiency, parasites, Dull, dirty hair coat, lack of hair various diseases or infections luster/shine Sneezing Upper respiratory infection, Frothing or bubbling around the nasal irritation nose, nasal discharge Swelling - abnormal growth, Various Abnormal or asymmetrical lump or tumor swelling or lump Vomiting Stomach irritation or infection Undigested or partially digested food on cage floor Weight loss Food deprivation, parasites, Animal appears smaller or various pathogenic diseases thinner, ribs easily visualized, measured decrease in weight Circling or head tilt.  The animal holds its head to one side or walks in circles. This may be the result of an inner ear infection or ear mites. Discharge - Colored or clear secretions around the eyes, nose, ears, rectum, vagina, or penis. Symptomatic of various infections and pathogenic diseases. Lethargy -  Sluggishness indicated by a lack of alertness or a reluctance to move.  This is a general indicator of stress. Prolapse  An internal organ protrudes through a body opening. Most commonly observed as tissue protruding from the rectum or genital orifice.  Typically occurs as a result of excessive straining during elimination of feces or giving birth. Ruffled or spikey coat.  Fur appears dull or dirty, lacks normal luster or shine.  Indicative of vitamin deficiency, parasites, various diseases, or infections. Tumor - Abnormal growth often visible as an aberrant or asymmetrical swelling or lump.  Indicative of a variety of local or systemic problems.